Cover Page


Quality Assurance and
Quality Control Guidelines

February 2002

Quality Assurance and Quality Control Guidelines Cover Graphic


This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof.

The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report.


English to Metric Metric to English
LENGTH (Approximate)

1 inch (in) = 2.5 centimeters (cm)
1 foot (ft) = 30 centimeters (cm)
1 yard (yd) = 0.9 meter (m)
1 mile (mi) = 1.6 kilometers (km)
LENGTH (Approximate)

1 millimeter (mm) = 0.04 inch (in)
1 centimeter (cm) = 0.4 inch (in)
1 meter (m) = 3.3 feet (ft)
1 meter (m) = 1.1 yards (yd)
1 kilometer (km) = 0.6 mile (mi)
AREA (Approximate)

1 square inch (sq in, in2) = 6.5 square centimeters (cm2)
1 square foot (sq ft, ft2) = 0.09 square meter (m2)
1 square yard (sq yd, yd2) = 0.8 square meter (m2)
1 square mile (sq mi, mi2) = 2.6 square kilometers (km2)
1 acre = 0.4 hectare (ha) = 4,000 square meters (m2)
AREA (Approximate)

1 square centimeter (cm) = 0.16 square inch (sq in, in)
1 square meter (m) = 1.2 square yards (sq yd, yd)
1 square kilometer (km) = 0.4 square mile (sq mi, mi)
10,000 square meters (m) = 1 hectare (ha) = 2.5 acres
MASS - WEIGHT (Approximate)

1 inch (in) = 2.5 centimeters (cm)
1 foot (ft) = 30 centimeters (cm)
1 yard (yd) = 0.9 meter (m)
1 mile (mi) = 1.6 kilometer (km)
MASS - WEIGHT (Approximate)

1 gram (gm) = 0.036 ounce (oz)
1 kilogram (kg) = 2.2 pounds (lb)
1 tonne (t) = 1,000 kilograms (kg) = 1.1 short tons
VOLUME (Approximate)

1 teaspoon (tsp) = 5 milliliters (ml)
1 tablespoon (tbsp) = 15 milliliters (ml)
1 fluid ounce (fl oz) = 30 milliliters (ml)
1 cup (c) = 0.24 liter (l)
1 pint (pt) = 0.47 liter (l)
1 quart (qt) = 0.96 liter (l)
1 gallon (gal) = 3.8 liters (l)
1 cubic foot (cu ft, ft 3) = 0.03 cubic meter (m3)
1 cubic yard (cu yd, yd3) = 0.76 cubic meter (m3)
VOLUME (Approximate)

1 milliliter (ml) = 0.03 fluid ounce (fl oz)
1 liter (l) = 2.1 pints (pt)
1 liter (l) = 1.06 quarts (qt)
1 liter (l) = 0.26 gallon (gal)
1 cubic meter (m) = 36 cubic feet (cu ft, ft)
1 cubic meter (m) = 1.3 cubic yards (cu yd, yd)

[(X-32)(5/9)] °F = Y °C

[(9/5) Y +32] °C = X °F
Quick Inch - Centimeter Length Conversion
Quick Fahrenheit - Celcius Temperature Conversion
For more exact and/or other conversion factors, see NIST Miscellaneous Publication 286, Units of Weights and Measures. Price $2.50 SD Catalog No. C13 10286
Updated 8/17/98


Booz Allen Hamilton was the prime contractor for the 2002 update of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Quality Assurance/Quality Control Guidelines under the direction of Mr. Sam Nassif, Program Engineer, in FTA’s Office of Engineering. Rick Carter was the Project Manager and author of the Guidelines. Dr. Osama Tomeh, Georges Darido, Donald Schneck and Luisa Medrano provided valuable research, comment and support throughout the effort. Wallace, Montgomery & Associates was a subcontractor under the direction of Frank Waesche III.

The appendices of these Guidelines contain case studies and selections from Quality Assurance and/or Quality Control Programs written by FTA grantees. For their kind and generous support, we wish to thank Bill Rodwick at the New York City Transit Authority, Lou Viner at the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Dave McSpadden at Houston METRO, Kathleen Krahn and Joseph Burke at the Chicago Transit Authority, Martin Tiger and Andrew Frohn at the Long Island Rail Road, Bob Brecht and Bill O’Connell at the Port Authority of Allegheny County, Rich Behrendt at the Central Ohio Transit Authority, Mark Latch at Tren Urbano, and Kassa Seyoum at Montgomery County Department of Public Works and Transportation.

A panel of experts provided oversight and review of the update. Booz Allen wish to thank the panel and the contributors to the case studies and the program examples for their valuable contributions toward enhancement of these guidelines and making them more pertinent to current project development challenges and quality solutions. The expert panel included:

J. Timothy Brown Vice President, Quality Programs
Tony Canuso Project Manager
Transportation Construction Services, Inc.
Khuong T Luu, P.E. General Engineer, Region IX
Federal Transit Administration
Dave McSpadden Manager of Quality Assurance
Metropolitan Transit Authority, Houston
Sam Nassif Program Engineer
Federal Transit Administration
Bill Rodwick Chief of Quality and Safety Management
MTA New York City Transit
Lou Viner Assistant Director of Compliance
Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority