Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2001 Annual Report

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NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 298-102

Preface

This annual report represents the cooperative efforts of many people. Extensive appreciation is extended to the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Transit Administration, the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, and the following individuals who were instrumental in guiding this project and contributing to its success:

Harry Saporta
Director, Office of Transit Safety and Security
Federal Transit Administration

Mark A. Snider
Drug and Alcohol Program Manager
Federal Transit Administration

James A. Harrison
Program Manager/Transportation Industry Analyst
Volpe National Transportation Systems Center

Michael R. Redington
Transportation Industry Analyst
Volpe National Transportation Systems Center

 

Executive Summary

Federal Transit Administration (FTA) regulations require that each recipient (both direct and indirect) of FTA funds (1) implement an anti-drug program to deter and detect the use of prohibited drugs, (2) establish a program to prevent the misuse of alcohol, and (3) report the results of its programs to FTA upon request. Compliance with FTA’s drug and alcohol testing program is a condition of Federal assistance. Failure of a recipient to establish and implement a drug and alcohol testing program - either in its own operations or in those of an entity operating on its behalf - may result in the suspension of FTA funding to the recipient.

In 2001, FTA amended its drug and alcohol testing regulations (originally published as 49 CFR Part 653 and Part 654, respectively) and combined them in a single regulation: CFR Part 655, Prevention of Alcohol Misuse and Prohibited Drug Use in Transit Operations. Part 655 was issued shortly after the minimum uniform DOT testing program requirements (49 CFR Part 40, Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs) were revised and reissued, in 2000. Part 655 eliminated the previous requirement that all direct funding recipients report their drug and alcohol testing program data to FTA annually. It now requires that recipients report their data only if requested by FTA. All direct recipients must still annually prepare and maintain a summary of the results of the programs that they oversaw during the previous calendar year. Direct recipients must also continue to annually certify regulatory compliance of those programs, and submit the certifications to their FTA regional office. Those who are requested to report must still do so on standard paper forms or electronically by March 15.

In 2001, FTA used a stratified random sampling system to select the funding recipients that were required to submit their data. Sample sizes were determined for each of the three size groups1 recognized by FTA (large, small, and rural) to ensure a distribution that accurately reflects the relative populations of the three groups. Thus in 2001, for the first time since the initial publication in 1995, the annual results of the FTA Drug and Alcohol Program are based on the results of only a portion of employers that receive FTA funding--406 large employers, 72 small employers, and 187 rural employers.

2001 Testing Results

Results are summarized for the following areas:

Random Violation Rates

FTA considers random testing to be the most effective deterrent to drug use and alcohol misuse. The results of random tests also provide the best indication of the overall level of drug use and alcohol misuse, and are used by FTA in determining minimum annual random testing rates for the following year. For this reason, employers were requested to report the number of refusals to take a random test, as well as the number of positive test results. Accordingly, violation rates are presented for random tests. Violation rate is used here to refer to the number of positives and refusals combined per person selected to take a random test:

Drug violation rate2= (verified positives + refusals) ÷ (specimens collected + refusals)

Alcohol violation rate = (confirmed positives3+ refusals) ÷ (screens collected + refusals)

In 2001, results were reported for 77,842 persons who were selected for a drug test and for 26,478 persons who were selected for an alcohol test. Of those selected for a drug test, 627 had a verified positive result, and 68 refused to take the test. Of those selected for an alcohol test, 36 had a confirmed blood alcohol level of at least .04, and 13 refused to take the test. As shown in the graph at right, the violation rate was 0.89 percent for drugs and 0.19 percent for alcohol. This was the first time that the random violation rate for drugs was below 1.0 percent. If it is below 1.0 percent again in 2002, the FTA Administrator will have the option to lower the rate at which employers must test for drugs from 50 percent to 25 percent. Because the alcohol violation rate was below 0.5, the rate for testing for alcohol will remain at 10 percent in 2002.

Random Drug Violation Rates by FTA Region

As shown on the map at right, the random drug violation rate was lowest in New York and New Jersey (Region 2) at 0.58 percent, and was highest in the northern mountain and great plains states (Region 8) at 1.45 percent. Only three regions had rates lower than the national average of 0.89 percent.percent.

 

As shown on the map at right, the random alcohol violation rate was also lowest in Region 2 at 0.11 percent, and was highest in the central states (Region 7) at 0.43 percent. Half of the regions had rates lower than the national average of 0.19 percent.percent.

Refusal data were not collected by employee category or by type of drug.

Accidents Resulting in Positive Post-Accident Tests

In 2001, employers reported 120 accidents that resulted in a positive post-accident drug test and 8 accidents that resulted in a post-accident alcohol test with a breath alcohol level of at least 0.04 percent. These numbers when normalized to the entire number of employers required to test by FTA were 277 and 17, respectively. None of the accidents reported resulted in a fatality.

Transit agencies reported 65 of the 120 accidents with positive drug tests, and 5 of the 8 accidents with positive alcohol tests. All but 5 of the accidents with positive drug tests were reported by large employers. All of the accidents with positive alcohol tests were reported by large employers.

Positive Test Rates4for Four Types of Testing

Because return to duty tests and follow-up tests represent a different segment of the test population (i.e., specimens produced by persons who have already been removed from duty for drug or alcohol violations and have completed a rehabilitation program) and not all employers offer rehabilitation, the data from those tests are not included in presentations of overall rates.

As shown in the graph at right, the reasonable suspicion positive rates were much higher than the random, post-accident, or pre-employment rates for both drugs and alcohol. The random rate was lowest of the drug rates. In fact, the random violation rate (0.95 percent) was significantly lower than the positive rates for any of the other three test types. The post-accident rate was the lowest of the alcohol rates.l rates.

Because refusal data are not reported by employee category, random positive rates are presented below by employee category, as well as the rates for all four test types combined. Though the random drug rate was lowest for the CDL/ non-revenue vehicle category, the combined rate was highest for that category. The revenue vehicle operation category had the highest random rate for both drugs and alcohol. The revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance category had the highest combined rate for alcohol.

As shown in the following charts, marijuana was detected as often as all of the other drugs combined in random testing, and more often than the others combined in pre-employment tests and for all four test types combined. Cocaine was detected more often than the others combined in post-accident and reasonable suspicion tests. Marijuana was detected second most often in those tests. PCP was detected least often in each of the four test types, and not at all in post-accident and reasonable suspicion tests.


Return to Duty Datauty Data

In 2003, employers reported that 289 safety-sensitive employees were returned to duty following a positive drug test or refusal, and 53 were returned following a positive alcohol test or refusal. These numbers when normalized to the entire number of employers required to test by FTA were 689 and 133, respectively.

Transit agencies returned 251 of the employees following a drug positive test or refusal, and returned 48 following an alcohol positive or refusal. Large employers returned 274 of the 289 returned following a drug positive or refusal, and returned 49 of the 53 returned following an alcohol positive or refusal. Before being returned to duty, employees must complete a rehabilitation program and submit a negative test for the substance for which they were removed from safety-sensitive duty. Many employers require both a drug and alcohol return to duty test. The returned employees must then complete a series of follow-up tests (for the substance for which they were removed, or both drugs and alcohol) for a specified period following return to duty.

In 2001, 859 return to duty drug tests and 4,956 follow-up drug tests were reported. As shown at right, more than 2 percent of each were positive. None of the 513 return to duty alcohol tests reported were positive, and only 11 of 4,080 follow-up alcohol tests reported were positive.ositive.

Trends: 1996 Through 2001ugh 2001As shown in the graph at right, the drug violation rate dropped for the fifth consecutive year, in 2001, a drop of 15 percent from 2000 and almost 45 percent since 1996. As also shown in that graph, the random alcohol violation rate rose by more than 25 percent in 2001 (to 0.19 percent), but was still nearly 10 percent below the rate for 1996.

Random Drug and Alcohol Test Violation Rate Trend

The combined positive rates for all six required test circumstances—random, post-accident, reasonable suspicion, pre-employment, return to duty, and follow-up—have been higher for both drugs and alcohol than the random violation rates for each of the six years from 1996 to 2001.to 2001.

The fact that the random rate that includes refusals has been lower every year for both drugs and alcohol than the combined rate for all tests, including random, that does not include refusals is conclusive evidence that random testing is an effective deterrent to drug use and alcohol misuse. Furthermore, as shown above, the combined rate for drugs has leveled since 1999 (and even increased slightly in 2001) while the random violation rate for drugs continued to decrease significantly in both 2000 and 2001

Table of Contents

Page

  1. Introduction

1.1 Regulatory Background 1-1

1.2 Reporting and Certification Requirements 1-2

1.3 Reporting Assistance 1-3

1.4 Data Analysis and Validation 1-3

1.5 Organization of Report 1-4

  1. Overview of Part 40 and Part 655 Testing Requirements

2.1 Overview of Required Testing Program 2-1

2.2 Safety-Sensitive Functions 2-2

2.3 Types of Tests 2-3

2.4 Types of Drugs 2-6

  1. Drug and Alcohol Test Data

3.1 Random Test Violation Data 3-4

3.1.1 Random Test Violation Data by Employer Type and Size 3-5

3.1.2 Random Violation Rates by FTA Region 3-6

3.2 Accident and Fatality Data Associated with Positive

Post-Accident Tests 3-9

3.3 Data for Four Test Types 3-10

3.3.1 Data for Four Test Types by Employer Type and Size 3-10

3.3.2 Data for Four Test Types by Employee Category 3-13

3.3.3 Data for Four Test Types by FTA Region 3-22

3.4 Test Data by Type of Drug 3-25

3.4.1 Data by Drug Type, Test Type, and Employer Type 3-26

3.4.2 Data by Drug Type, Test Type, and Employer Size 3-27

3.4.3 Data by Drug Type, Test Type, and Employee Category 3-29

3.5 Other Alcohol Violations 3-32

3.5.1 Confirmed Alcohol Specimens Between 0.02 and 0.039 3-32

3.5.2 Non-Test Alcohol Violations 3-34

  1. Return to Duty Data

4.1 Employees Returned to Duty in 2001 4-1

4.2 Return to Duty Test Data 4-2

4.2.1 Return to Duty Test Data by Employer Type and Size 4-2

4.2.2 Return to Duty Test Data by Employee Category 4-3

4.2.3 Return to Duty Test Data by FTA Region 4-5

4.2.4 Return to Duty Test Data by Type of Drug 4-5

4.3 Follow-Up Test Data 4-6

4.3.1 Follow-Up Test Data by Employer Type and Size 4-7

4.3.2 Follow-Up Test Data by Employee Category 4-8

4.3.3 Follow-Up Test Data by FTA Region 4-10

4.3.4 Follow-Up Test Data by Type of Drug 4-10

  1. Trend Analysis

5.1 Random Violation Rates 5-1

5.2 Random Positive Rates 5-3

5.3 Combined Positive Rates for All Test Results 5-4

Appendix A. Glossary A-1

Appendix B. FTA Regions B-1

Appendix C. Accident and Fatality Data Associated with Positive

Post-Accident Tests by FTA Region C-1

1 The population that surrounds the transit agency determines its size category. Large agencies are in areas of 200,000 or more, small is 50,000 to 200,000, and rural is less than 50,000. Transit agencies and contracted service providers are treated as individual entities in each group.

2 For clarity in presenting the test results, the term “violation rate” is used differently here than in Part 655, where “violation rate” refers only to random alcohol tests.

3 A positive alcohol test is a specimen with a confirmed breath alcohol level of at least 0.04.

4 For clarity in presenting the test results, “positive rate” is used differently here than in Part 655, where it refers only to random drug tests and is the drug equivalent of the violation rate for alcohol.

1. Introduction

This report is the sixth annual summary of data submitted for entry in the Federal Transit Administration’s (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Management Information System (DAMIS). The report summarizes data reported for calendar year 2001, and includes trend analyses based on the annual data submitted for calendar years 1996 through 2001. DAMIS contains the data from all the drug and alcohol tests conducted under FTA regulations between 1996 and 2000, but contains 2001 data from only selected agencies, as explained in Section 1.2. DAMIS also contains the data from all the tests conducted by large agencies in 1995.

FTA regulations require recipients and subrecipients of funding under Title 49 of United States Code (U.S.C.) Sections 5307, 5309, and 5311, and 23 U.S.C. Section 103(e)(4) and their contractors to implement and maintain a program to deter and detect use of prohibited drugs and misuse of alcohol by safety-sensitive employees, unless the recipient is also an operating railroad regulated by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA).

Section 5307 of 49 U.S.C. refers to block grants to finance capital projects and the planning, improvement, and operating costs of equipment, facilities, and associated capital maintenance items for use in mass transportation.

Section 5309 refers to discretionary grants and loans for capital projects, new and existing fixed guideway systems, an efficient mass transportation system coordinated with other transportation systems, introduction of new technologies, enhancement of urban economic development or incorporation of private investment, and mass transportation projects to meet the needs of the elderly and persons with disabilities.

Section 5311 refers to financial assistance for non-urbanized areas.

Section 103(e)(4) of 23 U.S.C. refers to grants to bus transit systems that operate on Federal-aid highway systems.

 

1.1 Regulatory Background

FTA issued its first drug and alcohol testing regulations on February 15, 1994 as two separate rules: 49 CFR Part 653, Prevention of Prohibited Drug Use in Transit Operations, and 49 CFR Part 654, Prevention of Alcohol Misuse in Transit Operations. The FTA rules were issued in response to The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act, enacted by Congress in 1991. They expanded the minimum uniform DOT testing program requirements published earlier in 1994 in 49 CFR Part 40, Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs.

The Omnibus Testing Act was intended to promote the health and safety of transportation employees and the traveling public. It required all DOT administrations to issue regulations requiring funding recipients to perform four types of testing of all safety-sensitive employees for five controlled substances and alcohol, and to establish a prescribed program of rehabilitation and follow-up testing for employees who are given the opportunity to return to safety-sensitive duty after testing positive or refusing to be tested. The Act also required recipients to follow the testing procedures established by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).

After making two notable amendments and several minor changes to its rules, FTA issued CFR Part 655, Prevention of Alcohol Misuse and Prohibited Drug Use in Transit Operations, which supersedes and combines Parts 653 and 654. Part 655 was published in 2001 to expand the minimum requirements of the revised Part 40, which was published in 2000. The current Part 40 and 655 testing requirements are summarized in Chapter 2 of this report.


1.2 Reporting and Certification Requirements

Part 655.72 eliminated the requirement that all direct funding recipients report their drug and alcohol testing program data to FTA annually. It requires that recipients report their data only if requested by FTA. FTA believes that random sampling is now sufficient to produce an accurate representation of the overall transit industry because five years of universal reporting and analysis has provided an accurate portrait of drug and alcohol testing (including positive rates) in the industry. The intent is to reduce the paperwork burden on a portion of the industry and to reduce FTA’s tabulation and analysis effort.

Recipients requested to report must still do so on standard forms by March 15. All direct recipients must still annually prepare and maintain a summary of the results of the programs that they oversaw during the previous calendar year. Direct recipients must also continue to annually certify regulatory compliance of those programs, and submit the certifications to their FTA regional office.

The employers requested to report 2001 data were chosen using a stratified random sampling technique. Sample sizes were determined for each of the three size groups recognized by FTA (large, small, and rural) to ensure a distribution that accurately reflects the relative populations of the three groups. The population that surrounds the transit organization determines the size of operation for each agency. Large, small, and rural organizations are categorized by a population of 200,000 or more, 50,000 to 200,000, and less than 50,000, respectively. In 2001, 406 large employers, 72 small employers, and 187 rural employers were asked to report.

Transit agencies and contracted service providers are treated as individual entities within each group. For example, an agency and two service providers it contracts with will represent three entities in the group’s sample population. The samples were also selected using a random number generator or through a systematic process that ordered the entities by a specific criterion, such as alphabetic within state, to ensure that the sample was spread across all regions of the United States.

FTA operating funds are granted directly to most large transit agencies. All other operating grants are provided to the states or to metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), which distribute the funds to individual transit agencies.

Some recipients and subrecipients (transit agencies funded by states or MPOs) rely on additional public or private entities to provide services in whole or in part. The states and MPOs must ensure the accuracy and timeliness of each report submitted by their subrecipients. All direct recipients must ensure the accuracy and timeliness of each report submitted by a service provider, operating or maintenance contractor, consortium or joint enterprise, or a third-party administrator acting on the behalf of a transit agency.

Failure of a recipient to establish a drug and alcohol testing program and to annually certify regulatory compliance and report information as requested, either in its own operations or in those of a subrecipient or an entity operating on its behalf, may result in the suspension of Federal transit funding to the recipient. Falsifying compliance information or certifications is a criminal offense.


1.3 Reporting Assistance

The required reporting forms are available in paper, on data diskette, and on the internet. Copies of reporting guidance and reporting forms and diskettes are available from the DAMIS Project Office at (617) 494-6336. The FTA Safety and Security Clearinghouse can be reached at (617) 494-2108 for additional copies of this report, as well as previously published annual reports. Other technical assistance materials, including the Implementation Guidelines for Drug and Alcohol Regulations in Mass Transit and Best Practices Manual: FTA Drug and Alcohol Testing Program, can be obtained from the FTA Office of Safety and Security at (202) 366-2896 and on the Office of Safety and Security’s Web site: http://transit-safety.volpe.dot.gov/damis.


1.4 Data Analysis and Validation

Data submitted for entry in DAMIS are subjected to extensive analysis and validation, both manual and automated. The process entails detailed review of the consistency and reasonableness of the data in each report, identification of errors or questionable entries, and resolution of any problems in consultation with the reporting agencies. This process enables detection and correction of errors of significant magnitude. However, some statistically minor errors may remain.


1.5 Organization of Report

The remainder of this report contains five chapters and three appendices:

2. Overview of Part 40 and Part 655 Testing Requirements

As mentioned in Chapter 1, CFR Parts 653 and 654 were replaced during calendar year 2001 with Part 655, which combines the previously separate drug and alcohol rules into a single rule and expands the requirements in the revised Part 40. FTA believes that combining the drug and alcohol rules will produce one multi-faceted program that can be implemented more efficiently. It also brings FTA into line with the eight other DOT operating administrations that have drug and alcohol testing regulations. The revised regulations contain no significant changes regarding the employees to be tested, type of tests to be performed, substances to be tested for, and the return to duty qualification. This chapter summarizes the requirements of the combined program (in Section 2.1) and describes in detail FTA safety-sensitive duties, the tests required by FTA, and the drugs that safety-sensitive employees must be tested for (in Sections 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4, respectively).

2.1 Overview of Required Testing Program

Employees who perform any of five safety-sensitive functions must be tested for five controlled substances in four circumstances. Such employees must also be tested for alcohol use in each of those circumstances except pre-employment, though employers may, and many do, require pre-employment tests per Part 40 testing procedures. An additional circumstance (return to duty/follow-up) is required for safety-sensitive employees who are a given opportunity to resume safety-sensitive duties after testing positive for drugs or alcohol or refusing to submit to a required test.

Safety-Sensitive Functions

Safety-Sensitive Job Categories

Revenue Vehicle Operation

Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

Armed Security Personnel

Test Types

Random

Post-accident

Reasonable suspicion

Pre-employment

*Return to duty/follow-up

Tested Drugs

Marijuana

Cocaine

Phencyclidine (PCP)

Opiates

Amphetamines

See Section 2.2 for a detailed description of FTA safety-sensitive duties.

See Section 2.3 for a detailed description of tests required by FTA. See Section 2.4 for a detailed description of the drugs to test for.
*Required only for employees who test positive for drugs or alcohol or refuse to submit to a required test


Any employee who has a verified positive drug test, has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or refuses to submit to a test must be immediately removed from safety-sensitive duty. The employee must then be informed of the resources available for evaluating and resolving problems associated with prohibited drug use and alcohol misuse, including the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of substance abuse professionals (SAPs) and counseling and treatment programs. The employer then decides the disciplinary action to take. To return the employee to a safety-sensitive function, the employer must ensure that the employee successfully completes a course of treatment prescribed by a SAP and produces a negative return to duty test for drugs or alcohol or both, depending on the violation. Once returned to duty, the employee must continue a treatment program administered by the SAP, which includes a series of follow-up tests.

Additionally, an employee with a confirmed alcohol concentration of at least 0.02 but less than 0.04 must be removed from duty for at least 8 hours or until a re-test conducted by the employer shows an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02. If the employee is removed from duty for 8 hours, a re-test need not be administered unless the employee exhibits signs of alcohol use upon returning to duty.

Part 40 also prohibits use, manufacture, distribution, dispensing, and possession of all controlled substances by safety-sensitive employees. Furthermore, Parts 40 and 655 prohibit safety-sensitive employees from consuming alcohol in three circumstances:

2.2 Safety-Sensitive Functions

The revenue vehicle operation safety-sensitive job category includes employees who operate a revenue service vehicle, regardless of whether it is in service and regardless of whether a fare is collected.

The revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance category includes employees who maintain revenue service vehicles or equipment. It also includes many maintenance contract employees who perform routine, ongoing repair or maintenance for FTA recipients and subrecipients that have employees, including supervisors, who perform or could be called upon to perform any of the FTA safety-sensitive functions. Maintenance contractors of 5311 funding recipients are not subject to the testing regulations.

Revenue vehicle control/dispatching includes employees who control the movement of revenue service vehicles. This function was much debated during the recent rule revision process because the title “dispatcher” covers a broad range of duties, not all of which are safety sensitive, throughout the industry. The key consideration is the type of work performed rather than a particular job title. FTA decided not attempt a universal definition of “dispatchers” in Part 655. Instead, each employer determines whether its particular dispatcher performs or may perform a safety-sensitive function.

CDL/non-revenue vehicle includes employees not included in another safety-sensitive category who operate a non-revenue service vehicle (e.g., ancillary vehicle) that requires a Commercial Drivers License (CDL).

Armed security personnel are employees who provide security and carry a firearm.

2.3 Types of Tests

Random testing is considered by FTA to be the most effective deterrent to drug use and alcohol misuse, as well as the most reliable indicator of drug use and alcohol misuse within an agency and in the industry as a whole, provided it is unannounced and unpredictable. Thus, random testing is required to be conducted throughout all workdays and hours of service, and must be conducted at least once per calendar quarter. Selections for testing must be based on a scientifically valid random-number selection method, to ensure that all safety-sensitive employees have an equal chance of being selected for testing each time a selection is made.

In 2001, the number of random drug tests conducted had to equal at least 50 percent of the number of persons in the selection pool when selections were made, and the number of alcohol tests had to equal at least 10 percent of the pool. These percentages can be amended (per Part 655.45) by the FTA Administrator based on the combined percentage of positive tests plus test refusals, i.e.:

(verified positives + refusals) ÷ (specimens collected + refusals)

for modifying drug test rates

(confirmed positives + refusals) ÷ (screens collected + refusals)

The Administrator has the option to reduce a random drug or alcohol testing rate of 50 percent to 25 percent if the combined percentage of positives plus refusals is less than 1.0 for two consecutive calendar years. The Administrator has the option to raise a drug or alcohol testing rate from 25 percent to 50 percent if the combined percentage of positives plus refusals for the previous calendar year was at least 1.0. Additionally, the Administrator can reduce an alcohol testing rate of 25 percent or 50 percent to 10 percent if the combined percentage of positives plus refusals was less than 0.5 for two consecutive calendar years. Conversely, the Administrator can also raise a rate of 10 percent to 25 or to 50 percent if the combined percentage in the previous calendar year was at least 0.5 or 1.0, respectively.

The random testing quotas for 2002 did not change. As shown in Section 3.1, the combined percentage of alcohol positives plus refusals remained below 0.50 (at 0.19), and although the combined percentage of drug positives plus refusals dropped below 1.0 in 2001 (to 0.89), the combined percentage for 2000 was 1.05. If the combined percentage for drugs is below 1.0 again in 2002, the Administrator will have the option to reduce the drug test quota to 25 percent for 2003.

NOTE

Part 655 uses the term “positive rate” to refer to the concept of the combined percentage of random drug positives plus refusals, and defines the term as including only random drug test data.

Part 655 uses the term “violation rate” to refer to the concept of the combined percentage of random alcohol positives plus refusals, and defines the term as including only random alcohol test data.

For clarity in presenting test results, those terms are used as follows in this report:

Violation rate” refers to the combined percentage of positive tests plus refusals for both drugs and alcohol.

Positive rate” refers to the percentage of verified positive tests of the total number of drug specimens collected and to the percentage of confirmed positive tests of the total number of alcohol screens collected. Positive rate is used to refer to this percentage for all test types, including random.

In other words, in this report, “violation rate” includes refusals, and “positive rate” does not include refusals.


The testing rate for employers who belong to a consortium applies to the total number of safety-sensitive employees in the consortium’s pool. As a result, some individual employers may not appear to meet the random testing requirement.

Post-accident testing refers to tests required following an accident involving a fatality or an accident that meets any of three other criteria and the employee’s involvement cannot be completely discounted as a contributing factor: (1) when a person suffers a bodily injury and immediately receives medical attention away from the scene, (2) when any vehicle involved incurs damage requiring it to be transported away from the scene by a tow truck or other vehicle, or (3) the mass transit vehicle involved is a rail car, trolley car, trolley bus, or vessel and is removed from revenue service due to the accident.

Employees to be tested include the vehicle operator and any other safety-sensitive employee not in the vehicle whose performance could have contributed to the accident. Both drug and alcohol tests must be administered as soon as possible, but no later than 8 hours after the accident for alcohol and 32 hours for drugs. The results of a blood, urine, or breath test conducted by Federal, state, or local officials having independent authority for the test cannot be used to meet FTA requirements unless the employer is unable to perform a post-accident test within the required time period, the test conforms to the applicable Federal, state, or local testing requirements, and that the test results are obtained by the employer.

Reasonable suspicion testing refers to a drug and/or alcohol test that is ordered by a trained supervisor based on specific, contemporaneous, articulable observations concerning the appearance, behavior, speech, or body odor of a safety-sensitive employee.

Pre-employment testing refers to testing of candidates for a safety-sensitive position (including existing non-safety-sensitive employees as well as applicants for employment) and for employees who have not performed a safety-sensitive function for more than 90 consecutive calendar days, regardless of the reason, and were removed from the employer’s random selection pool during that time. A negative pre-employment test for drugs is required by FTA as a condition for performing safety-sensitive duties under these circumstances. Pre-employment alcohol tests are not required but are permitted under Part 655 providing they are performed in accordance with the testing procedures in Part 40. The alcohol tests are included in the data presented in Chapter 3 because they are conducted per DOT standards and are required by many employers.

The Omnibus Testing Act required a negative pre-employment alcohol test, but FTA suspended the requirement on May 10, 1995, as the result of a U.S. Court of Appeals decision. FTA decided to allow but not require pre-employment alcohol testing in Part 655. All of the other eight DOT administrations with testing programs added this section to their rules.

Part 655 also eliminated the term “hire” in the pre-employment provision. Previously, employers were required to administer a drug test and receive a negative result before hiring an employee. FTA deleted the term to provide employers discretion to administer a pre-employment drug test anytime before an employee first performs a safety-sensitive function and before an employee returns to safety-sensitive duty after being removed from the random pool for an extended period. Part 655 also established a limit, 90 consecutive calendar days, on the amount of time an employee can be removed from the pool without a negative drug test before returning to work.

Return to duty testing refers to a drug and/or alcohol test that is required for a safety-sensitive employee who completes a course of treatment prescribed by a SAP after testing positive for drugs or alcohol or refusing to submit to a required test. A negative result for the type (drug or alcohol) of positive or refused test is required before the employee can be returned to duty. SAPs often require the employee to submit to both a drug and an alcohol test even if only one of the tests was at issue.

Follow-up testing refers to a drug and/or alcohol test that is required for an employee who is returned to safety-sensitive duty. The employee is subject to at least six unannounced tests for at least 12 months after returning to duty. The exact number and frequency of tests is prescribed by the SAP, who may order tests for up to 60 months after return to duty. SAPs often require the employee to submit to both a drug and an alcohol test even if only one of the tests was at issue. Follow-up testing is separate from, and in addition to, random testing.

Part 655 incorporates follow-up testing under return to duty testing (i.e., return to duty/follow-up testing) as one of five required FTA tests. It was previously listed separately as one of six required FTA tests.


2.4 Types of Drugs

Marijuana is derived from the hemp plant and comes in a variety of colors such as green, brown, and a gray mixture of leaves. THC or (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is the primary active chemical in marijuana. It is absorbed quickly into fatty tissues and stored for a long time. The potency and strength of the chemical causes people to use the drug for the mildly tranquilizing, mood and perception-altering effects it produces. The test for marijuana also includes its metabolites

Cocaine is an addictive substance that comes from coca leaves, or is made synthetically. It appears as a white powder that is snorted, ingested, injected, freebased (smoked), or applied directly to the nasal membrane or gums. Cocaine acts as a stimulant to the central nervous system. It gives the user a feeling of exhilaration. The chemicals in cocaine trick the brain into feeling it has experienced pleasure, when in fact it has not.

Phencyclidine (PCP), originally developed as an anesthetic, has adverse side effects that limit its medical use to a tranquilizer for large animals. In people, PCP acts as both a depressant and a hallucinogen, and sometimes as a stimulant. PCP can cause distorted bodily perceptions and a feeling of disassociation where the mind feels separated from the body. These effects can be very upsetting to some people, who may panic as a result.

Opiates, also known as narcotic analgesics, include heroin, morphine, and codeine. They are derived from a sap taken from a seedpod of the plant, “papaver somniferum” (or poppy plant). General effects include sedation, slowed reflexes, raspy speech, sluggish movements, slowed breathing, cold skin, and vomiting. The synthetic form of opiates, known as “designer drug,” is even more deadly and addictive.

Amphetamines include racemic, amphetamine, extroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. They are potent stimulants that may be swallowed, snorted, or injected. They induce exhilarating feelings of power, strength, energy, self-assertion, focus, and enhanced motivation. The need to sleep or eat is diminished. Amphetamines can induce a sense of aroused euphoria, which may last several hours. The body does not readily break down amphetamines. Thus, feelings are intensified and ephemeral. Subsequently, there is an intense feeling of mental depression and fatigue.

3. Drug and Alcohol Test Data

The following two charts compare the percentages of total verified drug positives and percentages of total drug specimens reported in 2001 for each of the six required test circumstances cited in Chapter 2.

The following two charts compare the percentages of total confirmed alcohol positives and percentages of total alcohol screens reported in 2001 for each of the six required test circumstances cited in Chapter 2.

Because return to duty tests and follow-up tests represent a different segment of the test population—specimens produced by persons who have already been removed from duty for drug or alcohol violations and have completed a rehabilitation program—and not all employers offer rehabilitation, the data from those tests are presented separately (in Chapter 4) from data for the other four test types. Data from random, post-accident, reasonable suspicion, and pre-employment testing are presented in this chapter. The next two charts compare the percentages of total verified drug positives and percentages of total drug specimens reported in 2001 for each of those four test types. Those charts are followed by two charts that compare the percentages of total confirmed alcohol positives and percentages of total alcohol screens reported in 2001.

 

 

The results of the random, post-accident, reasonable suspicion, and pre-employment tests are sorted and presented by various criteria to enable the following comparisons:

As mentioned in Section 2.3, the results of random tests provide the best indication of the overall level of drug use and alcohol misuse, and they are used by FTA in determining minimum random testing rates for the following year. For this reason, employers were requested to report the number of refusals to take a random test, as well as the number of positive test results. Accordingly, violation rates are presented for random tests. In this report, the violation rate refers to the number of positives and refusals combined per person selected to take a random test:

Drug violation rate1 = (verified positives + refusals) ÷ (specimens collected + refusals)
Alcohol violation rate = (confirmed positives
2 + refusals) ÷ (screens collected + refusals)

Employers were not asked to report refusal data for post-accident, reasonable suspicion, and pre-employment tests. The results for those tests are presented as verified positives for drugs and confirmed positives for alcohol. The verified/confirmed positive rates for random tests are included in the comparisons of positive rates by test type.

Data in this chapter are presented in five sections:

3.1 Violation rates and supporting data for random drug and alcohol tests, subdivided by:

3.2 Data on non-fatal accidents, fatal accidents, and total fatalities that resulted in positive post-accident drug or alcohol tests, subdivided by:

3.3 Verified/confirmed positive rates and supporting data for the four types of drug and alcohol tests, subdivided by:

3.4 Verified positive rates and supporting data for the four types of drug tests by type of drug, subdivided by:

3.5 Non-positive alcohol violations:

As mentioned in Chapter 1, not all subrecipients were requested to report their test data in 2001. The employers requested to report were chosen using a stratified random sampling technique. Three sample populations were developed, based on employer size—large, small, and rural.3 In 2001, 406 large employers, 72 small employers, and 187 rural employers were asked to report. To make the sample data meaningful, the results are expressed as rates where possible, i.e., in Sections 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5.1. The data on accidents that resulted in positive post-accident tests (in Section 3.2) and non-test alcohol violations (in Section 3.5.2) are normalized by each size category to represent the total number of employers. The actual number of instances reported is also presented to provide basis for the rate or normalization.

3.1 Random Test Violation4 Data

The graph at right presents the violation rates for random drug and random alcohol tests. The accompanying table provides the statistical basis for the violation rates, and it includes the refusal rates. These data are subdivided by employer type and size and by FTA region later in this section. Refusal data were not reported by employee category.

Persons Selected for Random Testing and Violations

Drugs

Alcohol

*Persons Selected

77,842

26,478

Refusals + Positives

695

49

Positives

627

36

Refusals

68

13

Refusal Rate

0.087%

0.049%

3.1.1 Random Test Violation Data by Employer Type and Size

The following three graphs present the random violation rates by employer type, by employer size, and by employer size and type, respectively. Each graph is accompanied by a table that provides the statistical basis for the violation rates. The tables also include the refusal rates.

 

Persons Selected for Random Testing and Violations by Employer Type

 

 

Drugs

Alcohol

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

*Persons Selected

65,043

12,799

22,367

4,111

Refusals + Positives

470

225

35

14

Positives

435

192

33

3

Refusals

35

33

2

11

Refusal Rate

0.054%

0.258%

0.009%

0.268%

*specimens collected + refusals for drugs

screens collected + refusals for alcohol

 

Persons Selected for Random Testing and Violations by Employer Size

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

*Persons Selected

74,144

1,811

1,887

25,335

584

558

Refusals + Positives

650

22

23

47

1

1

Positives

586

19

22

35

0

1

Refusals

64

3

1

12

1

0

Refusal Rate

0.086%

0.166%

0.053%

0.047%

0.171%

0

*specimens collected + refusals for drugs screens collected + refusals for alcohol


Persons Selected for Random Testing and Violations by Employer Size and Employer Type

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

*Persons Selected

62,472

11,672

1,112

699

1,459

428

21,575

3,760

368

217

424

134

Refusals + Positives

442

208

13

9

15

8

34

13

0

1

1

0

Positives

410

176

11

8

14

8

32

3

0

0

1

0

Refusals

32

32

2

1

1

0

2

10

0

1

0

0

Refusal Rate

0.051%

0.274%

0.180%

0.143%

0.069%

0

0.009%

0.266%

0

0.461%

0

0

*specimens collected + refusals for drugs screens collected + refusals for alcohol

3.1.2 Random Violation Rates by FTA Region

The following two maps show the random violation rates for drugs and for alcohol, respectively, for each of FTA’s ten regions. The shading variations provide quick comparison. The exact rates are also included. The statistical basis for the violation rates is provided in the accompanying tables.

Drug Violation Rates by FTA Region

Persons Selected for Random Drug Testing and Violations by Region

Region

*Persons

Selected

Verified

Positives

Refusals

1

3,836

26

6

2

22,406

111

18

3

10,234

89

14

4

5,487

43

5

5

12,201

110

6

6

5,467

59

8

7

1,796

18

1

8

2,549

35

2

9

10,876

111

6

10

2,990

25

2

*specimens collected + refusals

 

Random Alcohol Violation Rates by FTA Region

Persons Selected for Random Alcohol Testing and Violations by Region

Region

*Persons Selected

Confirmed

Positives

Refusals

1

893

0

2

2

7,120

7

1

3

4,997

8

5

4

3,137

5

0

5

3,291

7

2

6

2,917

2

2

7

460

2

0

8

526

0

1

9

2,425

4

0

10

712

1

0

*screens collected + refusals

These data are subdivided by employer type and by employer size on the following pages. The drug violation rates by employer type, the drug violation rates for large employers, and the alcohol violation rates for large employers are displayed on maps. The statistical basis for the violation rates is provided in the accompanying tables. Because of the small sizes of their populations, the other rates appear in tables, along with the statistical basis for those rates.

 

Random Drug Violation Rates by FTA Region and Employer Type

Persons Selected for Random Drug Testing and Violations by FTA Region and Employer Type

 

Transit

Contractor

Region

Persons

Selected

Verified

Positives

Refusals

Persons

Selected

Verified

Positives

Refusals

1

2,753

15

1

1,083

11

5

2

19,518

90

11

2,888

21

7

3

9,101

75

5

1,133

14

9

4

4,346

23

2

1,141

20

3

5

10,669

75

3

1,532

35

3

6

4,248

33

7

1,219

26

1

7

1,680

17

1

116

1

0

8

1,977

28

0

572

7

2

9

8,127

59

5

2,749

52

1

10

2,624

20

0

366

5

2


Random Alcohol Violation Data by FTA Region and Employer Type

 

Transit

Contractor

Region

Persons

Selected

Confirmed

Positives

Refusals

Violation

Rate

Persons

Selected

Confirmed

Positives

Refusals

Violation

Rate

1

580

0

0

0

313

0

2

0.64%

2

6,147

6

0

0.10%

973

1

1

0.21%

3

4,394

8

0

0.18%

603

0

5

0.83%

4

2,567

5

0

0.19%

570

0

0

0

5

2,819

7

0

0.25%

472

0

2

0.42%

6

2,628

2

2

0.15%

289

0

0

0

7

444

2

0

0.45%

16

0

0

0

8

389

0

0

0

137

0

1

0.73%

9

1,774

2

0

0.11%

651

2

0

0.31%

10

625

1

0

0.16%

87

0

0

0

 

Persons Selected for Random Drug Testing and Violations by Region and Large Employer

Region

Persons

Selected

Verified

Positives

Refusals

1

3,547

23

5

2

21,963

110

18

3

9,984

85

14

4

4,959

38

5

5

11,589

104

6

6

5,257

55

5

7

1,146

13

1

8

2,391

30

2

9

10,570

105

6

10

2,738

23

2

 

 

Persons Selected for Random Alcohol Testing and Violations by Region and Large Employer

Region

Persons

Selected

Confirmed

Positives

Refusals

1

771

0

1

2

6,982

6

1

3

4,921

8

5

4

2,948

5

0

5

3,126

7

2

6

2,860

2

2

7

294

2

0

8

497

0

1

9

2,345

4

0

10

591

1

0

Random Violation Data by FTA Region and Employer Size—Small and Rural

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Small

Rural

Small

Rural

Region

PS

VP

R

Rate

PS

VP

R

Rate

PS

CP

R

Rate

PS

CP

R

Rate

1

265

2

1

1.13%

24

1

0

4.17%

115

0

1

0.87%

7

0

0

0

2

312

1

0

0.32%

131

0

0

0

93

0

0

0

45

1

0

2.22%

3

173

3

0

1.73%

77

1

0

0

50

0

0

0

26

0

0

0

4

169

1

0

0.59%

359

4

0

0

55

0

0

0

134

0

0

0

5

402

3

0

0.75%

210

3

0

0

100

0

0

0

65

0

0

0

6

129

3

2

3.88%

81

1

1

2.47%

29

0

0

0

28

0

0

0

7

79

1

0

1.27%

571

4

0

0

18

0

0

0

148

0

0

0

8

0

0

0

0

158

5

0

3.16%

0

0

0

0

29

0

0

0

9

72

4

0

5.56%

234

2

0

0.85%

17

0

0

0

63

0

0

0

10

210

1

0

0.48%

42

1

0

2.38%

108

0

0

0

13

0

0

0

PS = persons selected VP = verified positives R = refusals Rate = violation rate CP = confirmed positives

3.2 Accident and Fatality Data Associated with Positive Post-Accident Tests

Data are presented for the number of accidents in which a transit agency employee or contractor tested positive in an FTA post-accident test. Data are presented for both drug tests and alcohol tests, though it should be noted that one person may test positive for both drugs and alcohol and that most employers test the employee for both drugs and alcohol. Thus, the numbers for drugs and alcohol cannot be added to obtain the total number of persons who tested positive. Data were not reported on the total number of persons testing positive in a post-accident test or for persons testing positive for both drugs and alcohol.

Because these accident and fatality numbers cannot be expressed as a rate, the number of instances reported have been normalized for the total number of employers by each size category. The first table below presents these statistics for the number of non-fatal accidents, fatal accidents, and total fatalities when a positive drug test resulted and when a positive alcohol test resulted. The next two tables subdivide those data by employer type and employer size, respectively. The data reported cannot be normalized by FTA region. The actual number of instances reported by region are presented in Appendix C; those numbers are also subdivided by employer type and by employer size. These accident and fatality numbers were not reported by employee category.

 

Accidents and Fatalities Resulting in Post-Accident Positives

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Normalized

Reported

Normalized

Reported

Non-Fatal Accidents

277

120

17

8

Fatal Accidents

0

0

0

0

Total Fatalities

0

0

0

0

 

 

Accidents and Fatalities Resulting in Post-Accident Positives
by Employer Size

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Normalized

Reported

Normalized

Reported

 

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Non-Fatal Accidents

246

16

15

115

3

2

17

0

0

8

0

0

Fatal Accidents

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total Fatalities

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0


Accidents and Fatalities Resulting in Post-Accident Positives by Employer Type

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Normalized

Reported

Normalized

Reported

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Non-Fatal Accidents

150

127

65

55

11

6

5

3

Fatal Accidents

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total Fatalities

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3.3 Data for Four Test Types

The positive rates for each of the four types (random, post-accident, reasonable suspicion, and pre-employment) and for the four types combined, for both drug tests and alcohol tests, are presented in the following graph. The accompanying table provides the statistical basis for the positive rates. These data are subdivided by employer type and size, by FTA region, and by employee category later in this section.

Positive Rates by Test Type

Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Test Type

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Random

77,774

627

26,465

36

Post-Accident

8,507

121

7,970

4

ReasonableSuspicion

509

43

479

42

Pre-Employment

44,462

1,296

6,162

9

Total

131,252

2,087

41,076

91

 

3.3.1 Data for Four Test Types by Employer Type and Size

The data above are subdivided by employer type, by employer size, and by employer size and type, respectively, in this section. The rates for each of the three data sets are shown in a separate pair of graphs. Each graph pair is followed by a table that provides the statistical basis for the rates.

Positive Rates by Test Type and Employer Type

Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Test Type and Employer Type

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

 

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Random

65,008

435

12,766

192

22,365

33

4,100

3

Post-Accident

6,782

65

1,725

56

6,607

3

1,363

1

Reasonable Suspicion

402

26

107

17

402

32

77

10

Pre-Employment

24,444

510

20,018

786

4,095

4

2,067

5

Total

96,636

1,036

34,616

1,051

33,469

72

7,607

19

 

One of the rates in each of the next two graphs is presented on a separate scale because its sample size is too small to be representative of its population.

 

Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Test Type and Employer Size

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

 

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Random

74,080

586

1,808

19

1,886

22

25,323

35

584

0

558

1

Post-Accident

8,197

116

165

3

145

2

7,733

4

141

0

96

0

Reasonable Suspicion

496

42

6

1

7

0

473

41

4

1

2

0

Pre-Employment

41,929

1,236

1,348

42

1,185

18

5,921

9

207

0

34

0

Total

124,702

1,980

3,327

65

3,223

42

39,450

89

936

1

690

1

One of the rates in each of the next two graphs is presented on a separate scale because its sample size is too small to be representative of its population. Due to the large number of alcohol rates below 0.3 percent, the space below “0.3” in the second graph has been expanded under the divider line to allow greater clarity.

 

Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Test Type, Employer Size, and Employer Type

 

Drugs

 

Large

Small

Rural

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

 

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Random

62,440

410

11,640

176

1,110

11

698

8

1,458

14

428

8

Post-Accident

6,542

60

1,655

56

126

3

39

0

114

2

31

0

Reasonable Suspicion

397

26

99

16

2

0

4

1

3

0

4

0

Pre-Employment

22,950

486

18,979

750

641

12

707

30

853

12

332

6

Total

92,329

982

32,373

998

1,879

26

1,448

39

2,428

28

795

14

 

Alcohol

 

Large

Small

Rural

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

 

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Random

21,573

32

3,750

3

368

0

216

0

424

1

134

0

Post-Accident

6,427

3

1,306

1

111

0

30

0

69

0

27

0

Reasonable Suspicion

398

31

75

10

3

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

Pre-Employment

3,930

4

1,991

5

131

0

76

0

34

0

0

0

Total

32,328

70

7,122

19

613

1

323

0

528

1

162

0

 

3.3.2 Data for Four Test Types by Employee Category

The next two graphs show the positive rates for each test type, as well as the rates for all four types combined, by employee category for drug tests and for alcohol tests, respectively. One of the drug rates is presented on a separate scale because its sample size is too small to be considered representative of its population. The table following the graphs provides the statistical basis for the positive rates. These data are further subdivided by employer type and by employer size on the pages that follow.

Positive Rates by Test Type and Employee Category

Because of the large number of alcohol rates below 0.4 percent, the space below “0.4” has been expanded under the divider line to allow greater clarity.

Positive Rates by Test Type and Employee Category

Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Test Type and Employee Category

DRUGS

 

Revenue Vehicle

Operation

Revenue Vehicle and

Equipment Maintenance

Revenue Vehicle

Control/Dispatching

 

CDL/Non-Revenue

Vehicle

 

Armed Security

Personnel

 

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Random

52,323

456

17,757

134

4,400

21

1,732

8

1,562

8

Post-Accident

7,896

113

381

4

77

2

93

2

60

0

Reasonable Suspicion

418

32

59

6

21

2

5

3

6

0

Pre-Employment

36,220

1,110

5,666

139

974

11

377

18

1,225

18

Total

96,857

1,711

23,863

283

5,472

36

2,207

31

2,853

26

 

ALCOHOL

 

Revenue Vehicle

Operation

Revenue Vehicle and

EquipmentMaintenance

Revenue Vehicle

Control/Dispatching

CDL/Non-Revenue

Vehicle

Armed Security

Personnel

 

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Random

17,342

27

5,920

9

1,339

0

1,162

0

702

0

Post-Accident

7,389

4

364

0

73

0

84

0

60

0

Reasonable Suspicion

384

24

64

16

22

1

6

1

3

0

Pre-Employment

4,794

7

859

2

137

0

83

0

289

0

Total

29,909

62

7,207

27

1,571

1

1,335

1

1,054

0

 

3.3.2.1 Data for Four Test Types by Employee Category and Employer Type

The following series of graphs and tables subdivide the preceding data by employer type. Two graphs, one for drugs and one for alcohol, are presented for the four test types combined and for each of the test types. They show the positive rates by employer type for each employee category. Each pair of graphs is accompanied by a table that provides the statistical basis for the rates.

Note: The graphs subdivided by employer type do not contain columns for employee categories that show a positive rate of “0” in the previous graphs.

Positive Rates for Four Test Types Combined by Employee Category and Employer Type

 

Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives for Four Test Types Combined by Employee Category and Employer Type

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

 

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

67,640

778

29,217

933

23,813

46

6,096

16

Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance

20,925

219

2,938

64

6,332

26

875

1

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

4,142

12

1,330

24

1,123

0

448

1

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

1,992

19

215

12

1,308

0

27

1

Armed Security Personnel

1,937

8

916

18

893

0

161

0

Random Positive Rates by Employee Category and Employer Type

 

/
Random Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employee
Category and Employer Type

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

 

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

42,565

296

9,758

160

14,382

25

2,960

2

Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance

16,022

118

1,735

16

5,237

8

683

1

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

3,510

9

890

12

1,015

0

324

0

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

1,687

8

45

0

1,146

0

16

0

Armed Security Personnel

1,224

4

338

4

585

0

117

0

Some of the post-accident rates and reasonable suspicion rates (in the next two pairs of graphs) are presented on a separate scale from the other rates because their sample sizes are too small to be considered representative of their populations.

Post-Accident Positive Rates by Employee Category and Employer Type

 

Post-Accident Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employee Category and Employer Type

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

 

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

6,269

59

1,627

54

6,110

3

1,279

1

Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance

309

3

72

1

300

0

64

0

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

57

2

20

0

56

0

17

0

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

87

1

6

1

81

0

3

0

Armed Security Personnel

60

0

0

0

60

0

0

0

 

Reasonable Suspicion Positive Rates by Employee Category and Employer Type

 

Reasonable Suspicion Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employee Category and Employer Type

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

 

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

325

20

93

12

320

16

64

8

Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance

55

4

4

2

59

16

5

0

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

19

1

2

1

17

0

5

1

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

3

1

2

2

4

0

2

1

Armed Security Personnel

0

0

6

0

2

0

1

0

 

Pre-Employment Positive Rates by Employee Category and Employer Type

 

Pre-Employment Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employee Category and Employer Type

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

 

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

18,481

403

17,739

707

3,001

2

1,793

5

Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance

4,539

94

1,127

45

736

2

123

0

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

556

0

418

11

35

0

102

0

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

215

9

162

9

77

0

6

0

Armed Security Personnel

653

4

572

14

246

0

43

0

 

3.3.2.2 Data for Four Test Types by Employee Category and Employer Size

The following series of graphs and tables subdivide the test type/employee category data by employer size. Two graphs, one for drugs and one for alcohol, are presented for the four test types combined and for each of the test types. The graphs show the positive rates by employer type for each employee category. Each pair of graphs is accompanied by a table that provides the statistical basis for the rates.

Note: The graphs subdivided by employer size do not contain columns for employee categories that show a positive rate of “0” in the test type/employee category graphs.

 

Positive Rates for Four Test Types Combined by Employee Category and Employer Size

 

Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives for Four Test Types Combined by Employee Category and Employer Size

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

 

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

91,448

1,629

2,558

46

2,851

36

28,668

61

748

0

583

1

Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

23,281

270

441

8

141

5

7,053

26

127

1

27

0

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

5,102

33

191

2

179

1

1,450

1

58

0

63

0

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

2,018

22

137

9

52

0

1,315

1

3

0

17

0

Armed Security Personnel

2,853

26

0

0

0

0

1,054

0

0

0

0

0

Random Positive Rates by EmployeeCategory andEmployer Size

Random Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employee Category and Employer Size

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

 

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

49,382

426

1,336

12

1,605

18

16,452

26

433

0

457

1

Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

17,356

126

302

5

99

3

5,799

9

96

0

25

0

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

4,106

18

154

2

140

1

1,227

0

52

0

60

0

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

1,674

8

16

0

42

0

1,143

0

3

0

16

0

Armed Security Personnel

1,562

8

0

0

0

0

702

0

0

0

0

0


Post-Accident Positive Rates by Employee Category and Employer Size

Post-Accident Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employee Category and Employer Size

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

 

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

7,602

108

158

3

136

2

7,159

4

137

0

93

0

Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

370

4

5

0

6

0

359

0

3

0

2

0

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

76

2

1

0

0

0

72

0

1

0

0

0

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

89

2

1

0

3

0

83

0

0

0

1

0

Armed Security Personnel

60

0

0

0

0

0

60

0

0

0

0

0

Three of the rates in the following pair of graphs are presented on a separate scale from the other rates because their sample sizes are too small to be considered representative of their populations.

Reasonable Suspicion Positive Rates by Employee Category and Employer Size

Reasonable Suspicion Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employee Category and Employer Size

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

 

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

405

31

6

1

7

0

379

24

3

0

2

0

Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

59

6

0

0

0

0

63

15

1

1

0

0

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

21

2

0

0

0

0

22

1

0

0

0

0

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

5

3

0

0

0

0

6

1

0

0

0

0

Armed Security Personnel

6

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0


Pre-Employment Positive Rates by Employee Category and Employer Size

 

Pre-Employment Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employee Category and Employer Size

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

 

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

34,059

1,064

1,058

30

1,103

16

4,588

7

175

0

31

0

Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

5,496

134

134

3

36

2

832

2

27

0

0

0

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

899

11

36

0

39

0

129

0

5

0

3

0

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

250

9

120

9

7

0

83

0

0

0

0

0

Armed Security Personnel

1,225

18

0

0

0

0

289

0

0

0

0

0

3.3.3 Data for Four Test Types by FTA Region

The following two maps show the positive rates for all four test types combined for drugs and for alcohol for each of FTA’s ten regions. The shading variations provide quick comparison. The exact rates are also included. The statistical basis for those rates is provided in the accompanying tables.

Positive Drug Test Rates for Four Test Types Combined by FTA Region

 

Region 1:

1.33%

 

 

Region 2:

1.14%

 

 

Region 3:

1.77%

 

 

Region 4:

1.32%

 

 

Region 5:

1.73%

 

 

Region 6:

2.16%

 

 

Region 7:

1.33%

 

 

Region 8:

2.31%

 

 

Region 9:

1.97%

 

 

Region 10:

1.08%

 

 

Specimens Collected and Positives by Region

Region

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

1

5,660

75

2

35,952

410

3

15,793

279

4

9,408

124

5

20,747

359

6

10,476

226

7

2,857

38

8

5,793

134

9

19,928

392

10

4,638

50

 

Positive Alcohol Test Rates for Four Test Types Combined by FTA Region

Screens Collected and Positives by Region

Region

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

1

1,264

2

2

10,510

23

3

7,983

22

4

4,699

8

5

5,730

18

6

3,811

5

7

694

2

8

823

0

9

4,707

9

10

855

2

These data are subdivided by employer type and by employer size on the following pages. The drug positive rates byemployer type, the drug positive rates for large employers, and the alcohol positive rates for large employers are displayed on maps. The statistical basis for the rates is provided in the accompanying tables. Because of the small sizesof their populations, the other rates appear in tables, along with the statistical basis for those rates.

Positive Drug Test Rates for Four Test Types Combined by FTA Region and Employer Type

 

Drug Specimens Collected and Verified Positives by Region and Employer Type

 

Transit

Contractor

Region

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

1

3,539

35

2,121

40

2

29,801

261

6,151

149

3

12,365

164

3,428

115

4

6,450

42

2,958

82

5

16,223

176

4,524

183

6

6,718

98

3,758

128

7

2,545

27

312

11

8

3,312

68

2,481

66

9

11,981

136

7,947

256

10

3,702

29

936

21

 

Alcohol Data for Four Test Types Combined by Region and Employer Type

 

Transit

Contractor

Region

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Positive

Rate

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Positive

Rate

1

961

2

0.21

484

0

0.00

2

10,122

22

0.22

2,300

8

0.35

3

7,441

18

0.24

1,361

4

0.29

4

3,915

8

0.20

841

0

0.00

5

5,551

18

0.32

849

1

0.12

6

3,341

4

0.12

531

1

0.19

7

730

3

0.41

18

0

0.00

8

707

0

0.00

266

0

0.00

9

3,928

6

0.15

1,410

5

0.35

10

803

2

0.25

108

0

0.00

 

Positive Drug Test Rates for Four Test Types Combined by FTA Region and Employer Size—Large

Specimens Collected & Positives by Region and Large Employers

Region

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

1

5,168

70

2

35,257

404

3

15,372

274

4

8,432

106

5

19,586

337

6

10,089

218

7

1,838

31

8

5,471

122

9

19,229

370

10

4,260

48

Positive Alcohol Test Rates for Four Test Types Combined by FTA Region and Employer Size—Large

Screens Collected & Positives by Region and Large Employers

Region

Screens

Confirmed Positives

1

1,086

2

2

10,234

22

3

7,885

22

4

4,439

8

5

5,468

18

6

3,735

4

7

501

2

8

784

0

9

4,607

9

10

711

2

Data for Four Test Types Combined by FTA Region and Employer Size—Small and Rural

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Small

Rural

Small

Rural

Region

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Positive

Rate

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Positive

Rate

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Positive

Rate

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Positive

Rate

1

436

4

0.92%

56

1

1.79%

171

0

0

7

0

0

2

506

6

1.19%

189

0

0

228

0

0

48

1

2.08%

3

298

4

1.34%

123

1

0.81%

68

0

0

30

0

0

4

367

11

3.00%

609

7

1.15%

81

0

0

179

0

0

5

757

14

1.85%

404

8

1.98%

171

0

0

91

0

0

6

272

7

2.57%

115

1

0.87%

43

1

2.33%

33

0

0

7

129

1

0.45%

890

6

0.67%

27

0

0

166

0

0

8

0

0

0

322

12

3.73%

0

0

0

39

0

0

9

264

17

6.44%

435

5

0.31%

17

0

0

83

0

0

10

298

1

0.34%

80

1

1.25%

130

0

0

14

0

0

The data for calculating the verified positive rates by region for random tests alone appear in the tables of regional random test violation data, in Section 3.1.2. Regional data for the other three test types, either individually or combined as non-random test data, are insufficient to calculate meaningful rates or to accurately normalize the data reported.

3.4 Test Data by Type of Drug

The verified positive rates5 for each type of drug tested for are presented for each test type and for the four test types combined in the following graph. Because of the large number of rates below 1.0 percent, the space below “1.0” has been expanded under the divider line to allow greater clarity in presenting those rates. The accompanying table provides the statistical basis for the positive rates. The pie charts that follow show the percentage of total drug test positives by drug type for each test type and for the four test types combined. These data are subdivided by employer type, by employer size, and by employee category later in this section.

Positive Rates5 by Drug Type and Test Type

 

Specimens Collected and Positives by Drug Type and Test Type

 

Specimens

Collected

Verified Positives

 

 

Marijuana

Cocaine

PCP

Opiates

Amphetamines

Random

77,774

325

280

5

11

28

Post-Accident

8,507

49

65

0

5

3

Reasonable Suspicion

509

10

27

0

6

2

Pre-Employment

44,462

841

420

25

29

30

Total

131,252

1,225

792

30

51

63

 

Percentage by Drug Type of Total Drug Detections for Each Test Type

3.4.1 Data by Drug Type, Test Type, and Employer Type

The following three graphs and two tables subdivide the drug type/test type data by employer type. Because of the large number of rates below 1.0 percent, the space below “1.0” has been expanded under the divider line in each of these three graphs to allow greater clarity in presenting those rates.

Specimens Collected and Positives by Drug Type, Test Type, and Employer Type

 

Specimens

Collected

Verified Positives

 

 

Marijuana

Cocaine

PCP

Opiates

Amphetamines

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Random

65,008

12,766

235

90

192

88

2

3

7

4

10

18

Post-Accident

6,782

1,725

27

22

35

30

0

0

2

3

1

2

Reasonable Suspicion

402

107

7

3

17

10

0

0

3

3

1

1

Pre-Employment

24,444

20,018

350

491

142

278

8

17

14

15

13

17

Total

96,636

34,616

619

606

386

406

10

20

26

25

25

38

 

Percentage by Drug Type of Total Drug Detections for Each Test Type by Employer Type

 

Transit

Contractor

 

Marijuana

Cocaine

PCP

Opiates

Ampheta-

mines

Marijuana

Cocaine

PCP

Opiates

Ampheta-

mines

Random

52.7

43.0

0.5

1.6

2.2

44.3

43.3

1.5

2.0

8.9

Post-Accident

41.5

53.9

0

3.1

1.5

38.6

52.6

0

5.3

3.5

Reasonable Suspicion

25.0

60.7

0

10.7

3.6

17.65

58.8

0

17.65

5.9

Pre-Employment

66.4

26.9

1.5

2.7

2.5

60.0

34.0

2.1

1.8

2.1

Combined

58.1

36.2

0.9

2.4

2.4

55.3

37.1

1.8

2.3

3.5

 

3.4.2 Data by Drug Type, Test Type, and Employer Size

The graphs and tables in this section subdivide the drug type/test type data by employer size. The graph below contains rates for large employers. The three graphs on the next page contain rates for small and rural employers. Because of the large number of rates below 1.0 percent for small and rural employers, the space below “1.0” has been expanded under the divider line in those graphs to allow greater clarity in presenting those rates.

 

Specimens Collected and Positives by Drug Type, Test Type, and Employer Size

 

Specimens Collected

Verified Positives

 

 

Marijuana

Cocaine

PCP

Opiates

Amphetamines

 

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Random

74,080

1,808

1,886

297

12

16

272

4

4

5

0

0

11

0

0

24

3

1

Post-Accident

8,197

165

145

47

2

0

63

1

1

0

0

0

4

0

1

3

0

0

Reasonable Suspicion

496

6

7

10

0

0

27

0

0

0

0

0

5

1

0

2

0

0

Pre-Employment

41,929

1,348

1,185

794

33

14

405

10

5

25

0

0

27

0

2

28

1

1

Total

124,702

3,327

3,123

1,148

47

30

767

15

10

30

0

0

47

1

3

57

4

2

Percentage by Drug Type of Positives for Each Test Type by Employer Size

Large

Small

Rural

M

C

P

O

A

M

C

P

O

A

M

C

P

O

A

Random

48.8

44.7

0.8

1.8

3.9

63.2

21.0

0

0

15.8

76.2

19.0

0

0

4.8

Post-Accident

40.2

53.8

0

3.4

2.6

66.7

33.3

0

0

0

0

50.0

0

50.0

0

Reasonable Suspicion

22.7

61.4

0

11.4

4.5

0

0

0

100

0

0

0

0

0

0

Pre-Employment

62.1

31.7

1.9

2.1

2.2

75.0

22.7

0

0

2.3

63.6

22.7

0

9.1

4.6

Combined

56.0

37.4

1.5

2.3

2.8

70.1

22.4

0

1.5

6.0

66.7

22.2

0

6.7

4.4

M = Marijuana C = Cocaine P = Phencyclidine (PCP) O = Opiates A = Amphetamines

3.4.3 Data by Drug Type, Test Type, and Employee Category

The following five graphs subdivide the drug type/test type positive rates by employee category. A graph is presented for the four test types combined and for each of the test types. The graphs show the positive rates by employee category for each drug type. The graphs are followed by a table that provides the statistical basis for the rates. That table is followed by another table that shows the percentage of total drug test positives by drug type for each test type and for the four test types combined.

Positive Rates for Four Test Types Combined by Drug Type and Employee Category

 

RVO = Revenue Vehicle Operation

RV&EM = Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

RVC/D = Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

CDL/N-RV = CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

ASP = Armed Security Personnel

Two of the rates in the graph below are presented on a separate scale from the other rates because their sample sizes are too small to be considered representative of their populations.

Pre-Employment Positive Rates by Drug Type and Employee Category

RVO = Revenue Vehicle Operation

RV&EM = Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

RVC/D = Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

CDL/N-RV = CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

ASP = Armed Security Personnel

Specimens Collected and Positives by Drug Type, Test Type, and Employee Category

 

 

Specimens Collected

Verified Positives

 

 

 

Marijuana

Cocaine

PCP

Opiates

Amphetamines

Random

RVO

52,323

215

218

3

9

24

 

RV&EM

17,757

89

46

2

2

2

 

RVC/D

4,400

12

9

0

0

2

 

CDL/N-RV

1,732

4

4

0

0

0

 

ASP

1,562

5

3

0

0

0

Post-Accident

RVO

7,896

43

63

0

5

3

 

RV&EM

381

4

0

0

0

0

 

RVC/D

77

1

1

0

0

0

 

CDL/N-RV

93

1

1

0

0

0

 

ASP

60

0

0

0

0

0

Reasonable Suspicion

RVO

418

5

20

0

6

2

 

RV&EM

59

3

4

0

0

0

 

RVC/D

21

1

1

0

0

0

 

CDL/N-RV

5

1

2

0

0

0

 

ASP

6

0

0

0

0

0

Pre-Employment

RVO

36,220

721

359

17

24

29

 

RV&EM

5,666

94

42

7

4

1

 

RVC/D

974

6

5

0

0

0

 

CDL/N-RV

377

9

7

1

1

0

 

ASP

1,225

11

7

0

0

0

Total

RVO

96,857

984

660

20

44

58

 

RV&EM

23,863

190

92

9

6

3

 

RVC/D

5,472

20

16

0

0

2

 

CDL/N-RV

2,207

15

14

1

1

0

 

ASP

2,853

16

10

0

0

0


Percentage by Drug Type for Positives for Each Test Type by Employee Category

 

Revenue Vehicle

Operation

Revenue Vehicle and

Equipment Maintenance

Revenue Vehicle

Control/Dispatching

CDL/Non-Revenue

Vehicle

Armed Security

Personnel

 

M

C

P

O

A

M

C

P

O

A

M

C

P

O

A

M

C

P

O

A

M

C

P

O

A

Random

45.9

46.5

0.6

1.9

5.1

63.1

32.7

1.4

1.4

1.4

52.1

39.2

0

0

8.7

50.0

50.0

0

0

0

62.5

37.5

0

0

0

Post-Accident

37.7

55.3

0

4.4

2.6

100

0

0

0

0

50.0

50.0

0

0

0

50.0

50.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Reasonable Suspicion

15.2

60.6

0

18.2

6.0

42.9

57.1

0

0

0

50.0

50.0

0

0

0

33.3

66.7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Pre-Employment

62.7

31.2

1.5

2.1

2.5

63.5

28.4

4.7

2.7

0.7

55.5

45.5

0

0

0

50.0

38.8

0

5.6

5.6

61.2

38.8

0

0

0

Combined

55.7

37.4

1.1

2.5

3.3

63.3

30.7

3.0

2.0

1.0

52.6

42.1

0

0

5.3

48.4

45.2

3.2

3.2

0

61.5

38.5

0

0

0

M = Marijuana C = Cocaine P = Phencyclidine (PCP) O = Opiates A = Amphetamines

3.5 Non-Positive Alcohol Violations

Data are presented for alcohol violations other than positive test results:

3.5.1 Confirmed Alcohol Specimens Between 0.02 and 0.039

The following tables present data on confirmed alcohol specimens produced at levels between 0.02 and 0.039 for each test type and for all four types combined. The data presented are the percentage of such specimens of the total number of screens produced and the statistical basis for those percentages. (For all test types except reasonable suspicion and for all the types combined, the percentages of the entire number of screens and the percentage of the total number with levels lower than 0.04 are the same after rounding because the rates are extremely low. Both rates are included in the “percent of total screens” column for reasonable suspicion tests.)

The table at right presents the total number of violations. The tables below subdivide those numbers by employer type, by employer size, by employer size and type combined, by employee category, and by FTA region, respectively. The rates by FTA region are presented for all four test types combined and for random tests, but not for the other three test types individually.

Alcohol Confirmations Between 0.02 and 0.039 by Test Type

 

Percent

of Total

Screens

Between

0.02 and

0.039

Total

Screens

Random

0.06

17

26,465

Post-Accident

0.06

5

7,970

Reasonable Suspicion

1.88/

2.06*

9

479

Pre-Employment

0.02

1

6,162

Total

0.08

32

41,076

*The bottom number is the percentage of the total number of screens excluding confirmed positives. Both percentages are the same for the other test types.

 

Alcohol Confirmations Between 0.02 and 0.039 by Test Type and Employer Type

 

Transit

Contractor

 

Percent

of Total

Screens

Between

0.02 and

0.039

Total

Screens

Percent

of Total

Screens

Between

0.02 and

0.039

Total

Screens

Random

0.07

15

22,365

0.05

2

4,100

Post-Accident

0.03

2

6,607

0.22

3

1,363

Reasonable Suspicion

1.24/

1.35*

5

402

5.19

5.97*

4

77

Pre-Employment

0.02

1

4,095

0

0

2,067

Total

0.07

23

33,469

0.12

9

7,607

*The bottom number is the percentage of the total number of screens excluding confirmed positives. Both percentages are the same for the other test types.

 

Alcohol Confirmations Between 0.02 and 0.039 by Test Type and Employer Size

 

Large

Small

Rural

 

Percent

of Total

Screens

Between

0.02 and

0.039

Total

Screens

Percent

of Total

Screens

Between

0.02 and

0.039

Total

Screens

Percent

of Total

Screens

Between

0.02 and

0.039

Total

Screens

Random

0.07

17

25,323

0

0

584

0

0

558

Post-Accident

0.06

5

7,733

0

0

141

0

0

96

Reasonable Suspicion

1.90/

2.08*

9

473

0

0

4

0

0

2

Pre-Employment

0.02

1

5,921

0

0

207

0

0

34

Total

0.08

32

39,450

0

0

936

0

0

690

*The bottom number is the percentage of the total number of screens excluding confirmed positives. Both percentages are the same for the other test types.

 

Alcohol Confirmations Between 0.02 and 0.039 by Test Type, Employer Size, and Employer Type

 

Large

Small

Rural

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

 

%TS

.02-

.039

TS

%TS

.02-

.039

TS

%TS

.02-

.039

TS

%TS

.02-

.039

TS

%TS

.02-

.039

TS

%TS

.02-

.039

TS

Random

0.07

15

21,573

0.05

2

3,750

0

0

368

0

0

216

0

0

424

0

0

134

Post-Accident

0.03

2

6,427

0.23

3

1,306

0

0

111

0

0

30

0

0

69

0

0

27

Reasonable

Suspicion

1.27/

1.36*

5

398

5.33/

6.15*

4

75

0

0

3

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

Pre-Employment

0.03

1

3,930

0

0

1,991

0

0

131

0

0

76

0

0

34

0

0

0

Total

0.09

23

32,328

0.13

9

7,122

0

0

613

0

0

323

0

0

528

0

0

162

TS = total screens

*The bottom number is the percentage of the total number of screens excluding confirmed positives. Both percentages are the same for the other test types.

 

Alcohol Confirmations Between 0.02 and 0.039 by Test Type and Employee Category

 

Revenue Vehicle

Operation

Revenue Vehicle and

Equipment Maintenance

Revenue Vehicle

Control/Dispatching

CDL/Non-Revenue

Vehicle

Armed Security

Personnel

 

Percent

of Total

Screens

0.02

to

0.039

Total

Screens

Percent

of Total

Screens

0.02

to

0.039

Total

Screens

Percent

of Total Screens

0.02

to

0.039

Total

Screens

Percent

of Total

Screens

0.02

to

0.039

Total

Screens

Percent

of Total

Screens

0.02

to

0.039

Total

Screens

Random

0.08

14

17,342

0.05

3

5,920

0

0

1,339

0

0

1,162

0

0

702

Post-Accident

0.07

5

7,389

0

0

364

0

0

73

0

0

84

0

0

60

Reasonable

Suspicion

2.08/

2.22*

8

384

1.56/

2.08*

1

64

0

0

22

0

0

6

0

0

3

Pre-Employment

0

0

4,794

0.12

1

859

0

0

137

0

0

83

0

0

289

Total

0.02

27

29,909

0.07

5

7,207

0

0

1,571

0

0

1,335

0

0

1,054

*The bottom number is the percentage of the total number of screens excluding confirmed positives. Both percentages are the same for the other test types.

 

Random Alcohol ConfirmationsBetween 0.02 and 0.039 by FTA Region

Region

Percent

of Total

Screens

Between

0.02 and

0.039

Total

Screens

1

0

0

891

2

0.08

6

7,119

3

0.04

2

4,992

4

0

0

3,137

5

0.09

3

3,289

6

0.10

3

2,915

7

0

0

460

8

0

0

525

9

0.08

2

2,425

10

0.14

1

712

Total Alcohol Confirmations Between 0.02 and 0.039 for Four Test Types Combined by FTA Region

Region

Percent

of Total

Screens

Between

0.02 and

0.039

Total

Screens

1

0.16

2

1,264

2

0.07

7

10,510

3

0,05

4

7,983

4

0.04

2

4,699

5

0.10

6

5,730

6

0.10

4

3,811

7

0.43

1

694

8

0.24

2

823

9

0.06

3

4,707

10

0.12

1

855

3.5.2 Non-Test Alcohol Violations

Because non-test violations cannot be expressed as a rate, the number of instances reported have been normalized for the total number of employers by each size category. Data are provided for each of the three non-test violations and for the total of the three violations. The first table presents the total number of violations. The other tables subdivide those numbers by employer type and by employer size, respectively. The table of violations by size also subdivides the large employer data by employer type. Non-test violations were not reported by employee category.

 

Non-Test Alcohol Violations

Normalized

Reported

Alcohol use before performing a safety-sensitive function

0

0

Alcohol use within 4 hours of performing a safety-sensitive function

11

5

Alcohol use before taking a required post-accident test

4

2

Total

15

7

 

Non-Test Alcohol Violations by Employer Type

Normalized

Reported

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Alcohol use before performing a safety-sensitive function

0

0

0

0

Alcohol use within 4 hours of performing a safety-sensitive function

9

2

4

1

Alcohol use before taking a required post-accident test

2

2

1

1

Total

11

4

5

2

 

Non-Test Alcohol Violations by Employer Size

Normalized

Reported

 

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

 

Total

T

C

 

 

Total

T

C

 

 

Alcohol use before performing a safety-sensitive function

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Alcohol use within 4 hours of performing a safety-sensitive function

11

9

2

0

0

5

4

1

0

0

Alcohol use before taking a required post-accident test

4

2

2

0

0

2

1

1

0

0

Total

15

11

4

0

0

7

5

2

0

0

T = transit C = contractor

 

1 For clarity in presenting the test results, the terms “violation rate” and “positive rate” are used differently in this report than in Part 655. See the text box in Section 2.3 for a full explanation.

2 A positive alcohol test is a specimen with a confirmed breath alcohol level of at least 0.04.

3 The population that surrounds the transit agency determines the size of operation for each agency. Large, small, and rural organizations are categorized by a population of 200,000 or more, 50,000 to 200,000, and less than 50,000, respectively.

4 “Violation” refers to the combined number of refusals and positives. See footnote 1, on page 3-3.

5 For clarity in presenting the test results, “positive rate” is used differently in this report than in Part 655. Here, it does not include refusals.See the text box in Section 2.3 for a full explanation.

4. Return to Duty Data

This chapter presents data on persons who have been returned to FTA safety-sensitive duty after testing positive for drugs or alcohol or refusing to submit to a required test and who have subsequently completed a rehabilitation program designed by a substance abuse professional (SAP). Section 4.1 presents statistics on the number of persons returned to duty in calendar year 2001. Section 4.2 summarizes data for return to duty tests performed in 2001. Section 4.3 summarizes data for follow-up tests performed in 2001. The results are sorted and presented by various criteria: employer type, employer size, employee category, FTA region, and drug type.

As mentioned in Chapter 1, only a portion of the recipients and subrecipients were requested to report their test data in 2001. Those employers were randomly selected from three stratified sample populations, based on employer size—406 large employers, 72 small employers, and 187 rural employers.6To make the sample data meaningful, the results are expressed as rates where possible, i.e., in Sections 4.2 and 4.3. The number of persons returned to duty (in Section 4.1) are normalized by each size category to represent the total number of employers. The actual number of instances reported is also presented to provide basis for the rates or normalization.

4.1 Employees Returned to Duty in 2001

Data are presented for the number of employees who were returned to duty following a drug violation and following an alcohol violation. However, one person may test positive for both drugs and alcohol, and most employers test the returned employees for both drugs and alcohol. Thus, the numbers for drugs and alcohol cannot be added to obtain the total number of persons returned to duty. No statistics were reported for the total number returned to duty.

Employees Returned to Duty by Employer Type

Drugs

Alcohol

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Normalized

598

91

120

13

Reported

251

38

48

5


Employees Returned to Duty


Drugs

Alcohol

Normalized 689 133
Reported 289 53

Because these data cannot be expressed as a rate, the number of instances reported have been normalized for the total number of employees by each size category. The table at left presents the number of employees returned to duty. These data are subdivided by employer type and by employer size in the tables below.

Employees Returned to Duty by Employer Size

Drugs

Alcohol

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Normalized

585

21

83

105

5

23

Reported

274

4

11

49

1

3

The data by employer size are further subdivided by employer type in the next table. Employees returned to duty were not reported by employee category.

Employees Returned to Duty by Employer Size and Employer Type

Drugs

Alcohol

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Normalized

512

73

16

5

60

23

94

11

5

0

23

0

Reported

240

34

3

1

8

3

44

5

1

0

3

0



4.2 Return to Duty Test Data

The positive rates for return to duty drug tests and alcohol tests7 are shown in the graph at left. The statistical basis for those rates are provided in the table below.

Return to Duty Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives


Drugs

Alcohol

Specimens Collected 859 513*
Verified Positives 18 0

*Total screens collected

The drug test rates are subdivided by employer type and size, by employee category, by FTA region, and by type of drug later in this section. Because no confirmed positive return to duty alcohol tests were reported in 2001, alcohol rates are not included in the graphs containing subdivided data.

4.2.1 Return to Duty Test Data by Employer Type and Size

The following three graphs present the return to duty drug test rates by employer type, by employer size, and by employer size and type, respectively. The three tables that follow provide the statistical basis for the positive rates.

Return to Duty Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employer Type


Drugs

Alcohol


Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Specimens

Collected

713 146 475* 38*
Verified

Positives

10 8 0 0

*Total screens collected

Return to Duty Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employer Size


Drugs

Alcohol


Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Specimens

Collected

816 20 23 495* 17* 1*
Verified

Positives

16 0 2 0 0 0

*Total screens collected

Return to Duty Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employer Size and Employer Type


Drugs

Alcohol


Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural


Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Specimens Collected

682

134

19

1

12

11

458*

37*

16

1*

1*

0*

Verified Positives

10

6

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

*Total screens collected



4.2.2 Return to Duty Test Data by Employee Category

The following graph shows the verified positive rates for return to duty drug tests by employee category. The table next to it provides the statistical basis for the positive rates. These data are further subdivided by employer type and by employer size on the next page.

Return to Duty Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employee Category


Drugs

Alcohol


Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation 671 16 396 0
Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance 157 1 96 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching 22 1 12 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 8 0 8 0
Armed Security Personnel 1 0 1 0

Note: Because there were no positive return to duty drug tests reported for the CDL/N-RV and ASP categories in 2001, the next two graphs do not include those categories.

 

Return to Duty Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employee Category and Employer Type


Drugs


Transit

Contractor


Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

541

9

130

7

Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance

147

0

10

1

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

17

1

5

0

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

7

0

1

0

Armed Security Personnel

1

0

0

0


Alcohol


Transit

Contractor


Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

369

0

27

0

Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance

90

0

6

0

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

8

0

4

0

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

7

0

1

0

Armed Security Personnel

1

0

0

0

Return to Duty Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives

by Employee Category and Employer Size


Drugs


Large

Small

Rural


SC

VP

SC

VP

SC

VP

Revenue Vehicle Operation 635 14 17

0

19 2
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 152 1 2

0

3 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching 20 1 1

0

1 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 8 0 0

0

0 0
Armed Security Personnel 1 0 0

0

0 0

Alcohol


Large

Small

Rural


S

CP

S

CP

S

CP

Revenue Vehicle Operation 380 0 15 0 1 0
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 95 0 1 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching 11 0 1 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 8 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 1 0 0 0 0 0
SC = specimens collected VP = verified positives
S = screens CP = confirmed positives

4.2.3 Return to Duty Test Data by FTA Region

The following map shows the verified positive rates for return to duty drug tests for each of FTA’s ten regions. The shading variations enable quick comparison. The exact rates are also included. The statistical basis for those rates is provided in the accompanying table. The table following the map shows the number of return to duty alcohol screens collected in each FTA region.

 

Return to Duty Specimens Collected & Positives by Region

Region

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

1

15 0

2

268 3

3

67 2

4

29 0

5

253 7

6

23 1

7

16 2

8

32 1

9

138 2

10

18 0

 

Positive Return to Duty Drug Test Rates by FTA Region

Return to Duty Alcohol Screens Collected and Positives by Region

Region

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Screens

12

82

66

16

215

8

12

21

78

3

Confirmed Positives

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

4.2.4 Return to Duty Test Data by Type of Drug

The next two tables show return to duty test data for each type of drug tested for. The number of drug test specimens collected and the number and percent of those that were verified positive are shown at left. The percentage of total positives by drug type are shown at right. These data are subdivided by employer type, by employer size, and by employee category on the next page.

Return to Duty Specimens Collected, Positives, and Rates by Drug Type

859 specimens collected


Positives

Percent

Marijuana

10

1.16

Cocaine

6

0.70

PCP

0

0
Opiates

0

0
Amphetamines

2

0.23

Percentage by Drug Type for

Return to Duty Positives

Marijuana 55
Cocaine 33
PCP 0
Opiates 0
Amphetamines 12

 

Return to Duty Specimens Collected, Positives, and Rates by Drug Type and Employer Type


Transit

Contractor


713 collected

146 collected


Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent

Marijuana

5

0.70

5

3.42

Cocaine

4

0.56

2

1.37

PCP

0

0

0

0

Opiates

0

0

0

0

Amphetamines

1

0.14

1

0.68

 

Percentage by Drug Type for Return to Duty Positives by Employer Type


Transit

Contractor

Marijuana

50.0

62.5

Cocaine

40.0

25.0

PCP

0

0

Opiates

0

0

Amphetamines

10.0

12.5

 

Return to Duty Specimens Collected, Positives, and Rates by Drug Type and Employer Size


Large

Small

Rural


816 collected

20 collected

23 collected


Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent

Marijuana

9

1.10

0

0

1

4.35

Cocaine

6

0.74

0

0

0

0

PCP

0

0

0

0

0

0

Opiates

0

0

0

0

0

0

Amphetamines

1

0.12

0

0

1

4.35

 

Percentage by Drug Type for Return to Duty Positives by Employer Size


Large Small Rural
Marijuana

56.25

0

50.0
Cocaine

37.5

0

0

PCP

0

0

0

Opiates

0

0

0

Amphetamines

6.25

0

50.0

 

Return to Duty Specimens Collected, Positives, and Rates by Drug Type and Employee Category

Percentage by Drug Type for Return to Duty Positives by Employee Category


RVO

RV&EM

RVC/D

CDL/N-RV

ASP


 


671collected

157collected

22 collected

8 collected

1 collected


Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent


 

 

 

 

 


RVO

RV&

EM

RVC

/D

CDL/

N-RV

ASP

Marijuana

8

1.20

1

0.64

1

4.55

0

0

0

0

M

80.0

10.0

10.0

0

0

Cocaine

6

0.90

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

C

100

0

0

0

0

PCP

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

P

0

0

0

0

0

Opiates

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

O

0

0

0

0

0

Amphetamines

2

0.30

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

A

100

0

0

0

0

RVO = Revenue Vehicle Operation RV&EM = Revenue VehicleandEquipmentMaintenance
RVC/D = Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching CDL/N-RV = CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle ASP = Armed Security Personnel
M = Marijuana C = Cocaine P = Phencyclidine (PCP) O = Opiates A = Amphetamines

4.3 Follow-Up Test Data

Follow-Up Specimens/Screens

Collected and Positives


Drugs

Alcohol

Specimens Collected

4,956

4,080*

Verified Positives

108

11

*Total screens collected

The positive rates for follow-up drug tests and alcohol tests are shown in the graph at left. The statistical basis for those rates is provided in the table below. These data are subdivided by employer type and size, by employee category, by FTA region, and by type of drug later in this section.

4.3.1 Follow-Up Test Data by Employer Type and Size

The following three graphs present the follow-up test rates by employer type, by employer size, and by employer size and type, respectively. Because there were no confirmed alcohol positives reported by small or rural employers, the graph (at right) showing employer size rates subdivided by employer type shows alcohol rates only for large employers. The three tables that follow provide the statistical basis for the positive rates.

Follow-Up Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employer Type


Drugs

Alcohol


Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Specimens

Collected

4,356 600 3,555* 525*
Verified

Positives

98 10 11 0

*Total screens collected

Follow-Up Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employer Size


Drugs

Alcohol


Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Specimens

Collected

4,853

57

46

4,070*

3*

7*

Verified

Positives

103

1

4

11

0

0

*Total screens collected

Follow-Up Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employer Size and Employer Type


Drugs

Alcohol


Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural


Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Specimens Collected

4,308

545

13

44

35

11

3,545*

525*

3*

0*

7*

0*

Verified Positives

94

9

1

0

3

1

11

0

0

0

0

0

*Total screens collected

4.3.2 Follow-Up Test Data by Employee Category

The following graph shows the positive rates for follow-up drug tests and alcohol tests by employee category. The accompanying table provides the statistical basis for the positive rates. These data are further subdivided by employer type and employer size in the subsequent graphs and tables.

Follow-Up Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employee Category


Drugs


Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

2,747

76

Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance

1,754

25

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

260

4

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

175

3

Armed Security Personnel

20

0


Alcohol


Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

2,235

8

Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance

1,452

3

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

250

0

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

128

0

Armed Security Personnel

15

0

 

Note: Because there were no positive follow-up drug tests reported for the ASP category in 2001 and there were no positive alcohol tests reported for theRVC/D, CDL/N-RV, and ASP categories, the next two graphs do not include those columns.

 

Follow-Up Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employee Category and Employer Type


Drugs

Alcohol


Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor


Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle Operation

2,380

70 367 6 1,940 8

295

0
Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

1,583

23 171 2 1,263 3

189

0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching

198

2 62 2 210 0

40

0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

175

3 0 0 127 0

1

0
Armed Security Personnel

20

0 0 0 15 0

0

0


Follow-Up Specimens/Screens Collected and Positives by Employee Category and Employer Size


Drugs

Alcohol


Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural


Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

Revenue Vehicle

Operation

2,655

74 51 0 41 2

2,226

8 2 0 7 0
Revenue Vehicle and

Equipment Maintenance

1,747

23 3 1 4 1

1,451

3 1 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle

Control/Dispatching

256

3 3 0 1 1

250

0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue

Vehicle

175

3 0 0 0 0

128

0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security

Personnel

20

0 0 0 0 0

15

0 0 0 0 0

4.3.3 Follow-Up Test Data by FTA Region

The following two maps show the positive rates for follow-up drug tests and alcohol tests for each of FTA’s ten regions. The shading variations enable quick comparison. The exact rates are also included. The statistical basis for those rates is provided in the accompanying tables.

Positive Follow-Up Drug Test Rates by FTA Region

 

Follow-Up Specimens Collected and

Positives by Region

Region

Specimens

Collected

Verified

Positives

1

181

2

2

2,010

15

3

866

12

4

57

4

5

733

20

6

56

4

7

53

10

8

163

9

9

613

21

10

224

11

 

Positive Follow-Up Alcohol Test Rates by FTA Region

 

Follow-Up Screens Collected and Positives by Region

Region

Screens

Confirmed

Positives

1

169

0

2

1,830

7

3

753

0

4

41

0

5

455

1

6

53

0

7

42

1

8

131

0

9

553

2

10

53

0



4.3.4 Follow-Up Test Data by Type of Drug

The next two tables show follow-up test data for each type of drug tested for. The number of drug test specimens collected and the number and percent of those that were verified positive are shown at left, and the percentage of total positives by drug type are shown at right. These data are subdivided by employer type, by employer size, and by employee category in the tables that follow.

 

Follow-Up Specimens Collected, Positives, and Rates by Drug Type

4956 specimens collected


Positives

Percent

Marijuana

56

1.13

Cocaine

44

0.89

PCP

1

0.02

Opiates

2

0.04

Amphetamines

6

0.12

Percentage by Drug Type for Follow-Up Positives

Marijuana 51.4
Cocaine 40.4
PCP 0.9
Opiates 1.8
Amphetamines 5.5

Follow-Up Specimens Collected, Positives, and Rates by Drug Type and Employer Type


Transit

Contractor


4356 collected

600 collected


Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent

Marijuana

51

1.17

5

0.83
Cocaine

40

0.92

4

0.67
PCP

1

0.02

0

0
Opiates

2

0.04

0

0
Amphetamines

5

0.11

1

0.16

Percentage by Drug Type for Follow-Up Positives by Employer Type


Transit

Contractor

Marijuana

51.5

50.0

Cocaine

40.4

40.0

PCP

1.0

0

Opiates

2.0

0

Amphetamines

5.1

10.0

 

Follow-Up Specimens Collected, Positives, and Rates

by Drug Type and Employer Size


Large

Small

Rural


4853 collected

57 collected

46 collected


Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent

Marijuana

51

1.05

1

1.75

4

8.70

Cocaine

44

0.91

0

0 0 0
PCP

1

0.02

0

0 0 0
Opiates

2

0.04

0

0 0 0
Amphetamines

6

0.12

0

0 0 0

 

Follow-Up Specimens Collected, Positives, and Rates

by Drug Type and Employee Category

Percentage by Drug Type for Follow-Up Positives by Employee Category


RVO

RV&EM

RVC/D

CDL/N-RV

ASP


 

 

 

 

 

 

 


2747collected

1754collected

260collected

175collected

20 collected


Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent

Positives

Percent


RVO

RV&

EM

RVC

/D

CDL/

N-RV

ASP

Marijuana

2

0.07

1

0.06

2

0.77

0

0

0

0

M

40.0

20.0

40.0

0

0

Cocaine

4

0.15

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

C

100

0

0

0

0

PCP

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

P

0

0

0

0

0

Opiates

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

O

0

0

0

0

0

Amphetamines

0

0

1

0.06

0

0

0

0

0

0

A

0

100

0

0

0

RVO = Revenue Vehicle Operation RV&EM=RevenueVehicleandEquipmentMaintenance
RVC/D = Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching CDL/N-RV = CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle ASP = Armed Security Personnel
M = Marijuana C = Cocaine P = Phencyclidine (PCP) O = Opiates A = Amphetamines

Percentage by Drug Type for Follow-Up Positives by Employer Size


Large

Small

Rural

Marijuana 49.0 100 100
Cocaine 42.3 0 0
PCP

1.0

0 0
Opiates

1.9

0 0
Amphetamines

5.8

0 0

 

6 The population that surrounds the transit organization determines the size of operation for each agency. Large, small, and rural organizations are categorized by a population of 200,000 or more, 50,000 to 200,000, and less than 50,000, respectively.

7 A positive alcohol test is a specimen with a confirmed breath alcohol level of at least 0.04.

5. Trend Analysis

This chapter compares reported drug test and alcohol test8 results for each year from 1996 to 2001. Comparisons are presented for random test violation rates, random test positive rates, and the combined positive rates for all the test results reported. The random test violation rates are subdivided by employer type.

In this report, the violation rate9 refers to the number of positives and refusals combined per person selected to take a random test:

Drug violation rate =(verified positives +refusals) ÷(specimens collected +refusals)
Alcohol violation rate =(confirmed positives +refusals) ÷(screens + refusals)

The positive rate does not include refusals. For drugs, it is number of verified positives per the total number of specimens collected. For alcohol, it is number of confirmed positives per the total number of screens collected.

5.1 Random Violation Rates

As mentioned in Section 2.3, the combined percentage of positives plus refusals (i.e., the violation rate) is the best indication of the overall level of drug use and alcohol misuse, and is used by FTA in determining minimum random testing rates for the following year.

As shown in the next graph, the drug violation rate dropped for the fifth consecutive year, in 2001. It dropped below 1.0 for the first time (to 0.89, a drop of 15 percent from 2000 and almost 45 percent since 1996). If it is below 1.0 again in 2002, the FTA Administrator will have the option to reduce the drug test quota from 50 percent to 25 percent for 2003. As shown in the second graph, however, the rate for contractors was still quite high at 1.76. Though it did drop for the third consecutive year, the contractor rate dropped by less than 5 percent in 2001 and has dropped by only 13 percent since 1998. High rates for contractors may dissuade the Administrator from lowering the random drug testing rate even if the overall drug violation rate remains below 1.0 in 2002. The rate for transit agency employees also dropped for at least the third consecutive year. The transit rate dropped by 15 percent in 2001 (to 0.72 percent), and has dropped by nearly 30 percent since 1998.

As also shown in the next graph, the random alcohol violation rate rose by more than 25 percent in 2001 (to 0.19 percent), but was still nearly 10 percent below the rate for 1996. The alcohol violation rate also remained well below the threshold of 0.50 percent for the testing rate to be raised from 10 to 25 percent. As shown in the third graph in this section, the alcohol rate for contractors rose by nearly 50 percent in 2001 and has more than doubled since 1996, but was still well below 0.50 percent (at 0.34 percent). The alcohol rate for transit agency employees rose for the first time since 1996 (by nearly 15 percent to 0.16 percent), but was still more than 25 percent lower than the 1996 rate.

 

Random Drug and Alcohol Test Violation Rate: 1996 to 2001

Random Drug Test Violation Rate by Employer Type: 1998 to 2001

Random Alcohol Test Violation Rate by Employer Type: 1996 to 2001

 

5.2 Random Positive Rates

The six-year trends for both the drug and alcohol positive rates were very similar to their respective violation rate trends, with slightly lower positive rates than violation rates for each year. The only difference in the trends is that the positive alcohol rate rose for the second consecutive year in 2001 after dropping each year before 2000, as shown below, whereas the alcohol violation rate rose in 1998 and 2001 and dropped in 1997, 1999, and 2000.

Random Drug and Alcohol Test Positive Rates: 1996 to 2001

5.3 Combined Positive Rates for All Test Results

The combined positive rates for all of the six required test circumstances cited in Chapter 2—random, post-accident, reasonable suspicion, pre-employment, return to duty, and follow-up—have been higher for both drugs and alcohol than the random violation rates for each of the six years from 1996 to 2001. The fact that the random rate that includes refusals has been lower every year for both drugs and alcohol than the combined rate for all tests, including random, that does not include refusals is conclusive evidence that random testing is an effective deterrent to drug use and alcohol misuse. Furthermore, as shown below, the combined rate for drugs has leveled since 1999 (and even increased slightly in 2001) while the random violation rate for drugs continued to decrease significantly in both 2000 and 2001.

Total Drug and Alcohol Test Positive Rates for All Six Test Types Combined: 1996 to 2001

8 A positive alcohol test is a specimen with a confirmed breath alcohol level of at least 0.04.

9 For clarity in presenting the test results, the terms “violation rate” and “positive rate” are used differently in this report than in Part 655. See the text box in Section 2.3 for a full explanation.

Appendix A. Glossary

Accident: An occurrence associated with the operation of a vehicle, if as a result:

(1) A person dies;

(2) A person suffers a bodily injury and immediately receives medical treatment away from the scene of the accident;

(3) With respect to an occurrence in which the mass transit vehicle involved is a bus, electric bus, van, or automobile, one or more vehicles incurs disabling damage as the result of the occurrence and is transported away from the scene by a tow truck or other vehicle; or

(4) With respect to an occurrence in which the mass transit vehicle involved is a rail car, trolley car, trolley bus, or vessel, the mass transit vehicle is removed from revenue service.

Alcohol: The intoxicating agent in beverage alcohol, ethyl alcohol, or other low molecular weight alcohols including methyl or isopropyl alcohol.

Alcohol concentration: The alcohol in a volume of breath expressed in terms of grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath as indicated by a breath test.

Alcohol confirmation test: A subsequent test using an EBT, following a screening test with a result of 0.02 or greater, that provides quantitative data about the alcohol concentration.

Alcohol positive: See “confirmed positive.”

Screening test: An analytic procedure to determine whether an employee may have a prohibited concentration of alcohol in a breath or saliva specimen.

Alcohol use: The consumption of any beverage, mixture or preparation, including any medication containing alcohol.

Anti-drug program: A program to detect and deter the use of prohibited drugs as required by FTA regulations.

Armed security personnel: Function including any person who provides security to protect persons or property, and any person who carries a firearm.

Canceled or invalid test: In drug testing, a drug test that has been declared invalid by a Medical Review Officer (MRO). In alcohol testing, this would be a test that is deemed to be invalid. It is neither a positive nor a negative test.

CDL/non-revenue vehicle: Job category including any transit employee who holds a Commercial Driver's License (CDL), performs a function requiring a CDL, and is not included in any other job category.

Confirmed positive: A specimen with a confirmed breath alcohol level of at least 0.04

Consortium: An entity, including a group or association of employers, operators, recipients, subrecipients, or contractors, which provides drug testing services and acts on behalf of the employer.

Contractor: A person or organization that provides a service for a recipient, subrecipient, employer, or operator consistent with a specific understanding or arrangement. The understanding can be a written contract or an informal arrangement that reflects an ongoing relationship between the parties.

Covered employee: A person, including an applicant, transferee, and certain volunteers who perform a safety-sensitive function for a recipient, subrecipient, employer, or operator.

DOT: United States Department of Transportation.

DOT agency: An agency (or "operating administration") of the U.S. Department of Transportation administering regulations requiring drug testing.

Drug confirmation (or confirmatory) test: A second analytical procedure performed on a urine specimen to identify and quantify the presence of a specific drug or drug metabolite.

Drug metabolite: The specific substance produced when the human body metabolizes a given prohibited drug as it passes through the body and is excreted in urine.

Drug positive: See “verified positive.”

Drug screening test (or initial test): An immunoassay screen of a urine specimen (collected in accordance with 49 CFR Part 40 and analyzed in a DHHS-approved laboratory), to eliminate "negative" urine specimens from further analysis. Positive specimens are analyzed again (via a confirmation test) to verify and quantify the presence of a specific drug or drug metabolite.

Education: Efforts that include the display and distribution of informational materials, a community service hotline telephone number for employee assistance, and the transit entity policy regarding drug use and alcohol misuse in the workplace.

Employee: A person designated in a DOT agency regulation as subject to drug testing and/or alcohol testing. “Employee” includes an applicant for employment.

Employer: A recipient or other entity that provides mass transportation services or performs a safety-sensitive function for such recipient or other entity. This term includes subrecipients, operators, and contractors.

Follow-up test: Required of employees who have returned to duty in a safety-sensitive position following a positive drug test result or an alcohol test result of ³ 0.04. A minimum of six tests must be performed during the first 12 months after the employee returns to duty.

FTA: The Federal Transit Administration, an agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation.

Large operator: A recipient or subrecipient primarily operating in an area with a population of 200,000 or more.

Medical review officer (MRO): A licensed physician (Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathy) responsible for receiving laboratory results generated by an employer's drug testing program, who has knowledge of substance abuse disorders and has appropriate medical training to interpret and evaluate a person's confirmed positive test result together with appropriate medical history and any other relevant biomedical information.

Part 40: US DOT’s testing regulation titled Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs, which was enacted in 1994 and revised in 2000.

Part 655: FTA’s testing regulation titled Prevention of Alcohol Misuse and Prohibited Drug Use in Transit Operations. In was enacted in 2001 to expand the minimum requirements of the revised Part 40 and to combine the previous FTA testing regulations enacted in 1994: Part 653, Prevention of Prohibited Drug Use in Transit Operations, and Part 654, Prevention of Alcohol Misuse in Transit Operations.

Positive test rate: Used in this report, for clarity in presenting the test results, to refer to the number of confirmed alcohol positives per total number of screens collected or the number of verified drug positives per total number of specimens collected. This definition differs from the regulatory definition (in Part 655), where “positive rate” refers to the number of drug test positives and refusals combined per person selected to take a random test.

Post-accident testing: Required testing for prohibited drugs and alcohol, following certain mass transit accidents. These accidents include those in which a death occurs, medical treatment away from the scene is required, or one or more of the vehicles involved incurs disabling damage.

Pre-employment testing: Testing that is designed to identify applicants who have consumed a prohibited drug in the recent past. Employers are prohibited from hiring an applicant for a safety-sensitive function unless they have a verified negative drug test.

Random testing: Identifies employees who are using drugs or misusing alcohol by using an unpredictable and unannounced testing pattern. Safety-sensitive employees are selected based on a scientifically valid random-number selection method. It is considered by FTA to be the most effective deterrent to drug use and alcohol misuse.

Random testing rate: The rate at which each employer must conduct random tests each year. The number of random drug tests must equal a percentage (specified by FTA each year) of the number of the employer’s safety-sensitive employees. In 2001, the drug testing rate was 50 percent, and the alcohol testing rate was 10 percent. These rates remained the same in 2002. They can be amended (per Part 655.45) by the FTA Administrator based on the combined percentage of positive tests plus test refusals.

Reasonable suspicion testing: Required when an employer has reasonable suspicion that an employee has used a prohibited drug or has misused alcohol as defined in the regulations. Reasonable suspicion testing must be based on specific, contemporaneous, articulable observations made by a trained supervisor concerning the appearance, behavior, speech, or body odor of a safety-sensitive employee.

Recipient: An entity receiving financial assistance under Section 5307, 5309, or 5311 of the Federal Transit Act or under Section 103(e)(4) of Title 23 of the U.S. Code. A direct recipient receives funding directly from FTA, i.e., most large transit agencies, state governments, and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs). An indirect recipient receives funding from a state government or from an MPO.

Refusal to submit to an alcohol test: A covered employee fails to provide adequate breath for testing without a valid medical explanation.

Refusal to submit to a drug test: A covered employee fails to provide a urine sample as required by 49 CFR Part 40, without a valid medical explanation, after the employee has received notice of the requirement to be tested or engages in conduct that clearly obstructs the testing process.

Return to duty testing: Required before an employee is allowed to return to duty to perform a safety-sensitive function following a verified positive drug test, an alcohol result of 0.04 or greater, a refusal to submit to a test, or any other violation of the regulation.

Revenue vehicle control/dispatching: Job function including any person who controls the dispatch or movement of revenue service vehicles.

Revenue vehicle operations: Function including any person who operates or works as a crewman on revenue service vehicles at any time.

Rural operator: A subrecipient of 5311 funding primarily operating in an area with a population of less than 50,000.

Safety-sensitive function: Any of the following duties:

Small operator: A recipient or subrecipient primarily operating in an area with a population of 50,000 or greater and less than 200,000.

Substance abuse professional (SAP): A licensed physician (Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathy), or a licensed or certified psychologist, social worker, employee assistance professional, or addiction counselor (certified by the National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors Certification Commission), with knowledge of and clinical experience in the diagnosis and treatment of drug and alcohol-related disorders.

Transit agency: The public entity that receives the Federal grant (direct grant recipient), whether or not that recipient provides mass transit services directly.

Vehicle and equipment maintenance: Function including any person repairing or maintaining revenue service vehicles or other equipment used in revenue service.

Verified positive: A drug test result reviewed by an MRO and determined to have evidence of prohibited drug use.

Violation rate: Used in this report, for clarity in presenting the test results, to refer to the number of test positives and refusals combined per person selected to take a random test:

Drug violation rate =(verified positives +refusals) ÷(specimens collected +refusals)

Alcohol violation rate =(confirmed positives +refusals) ÷(screens collected +refusals)

This definition differs from the regulatory definition (in Part 655), where “violation rate” refers only to alcohol testing. The concept of a drug violation rate is referred to as the “positive rate” in Part 655.

Appendix B. FTA Regions

The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has ten regions, which are identified below. The data provided by these regions have facilitated the comparison of drug and alcohol test results and the identification of regional trends.

 

 

U.S. States and Territories Reporting to the 10 FTA Regions

Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 Region 4 Region 5
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont
New Jersey
New York Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands
Delaware
District of
Columbia
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Mississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee
Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
Minnesota
Ohio
Wisconsin

Region 6 Region 7 Region 8 Region 9 Region 10
Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico Oklahoma
Texas
Iowa
Kansas
Missouri
Nebraska


Colorado
Montana
North Dakota
South Dakota
Utah
Wyoming

 

American Samoa
Arizona
California
Guam
Hawaii
Nevada
Northern
Mariana Islands
Alaska
Idaho
Oregon
Washington

 

 

Appendix C.
Accident and Fatality Data Associated with Positive
Post-Accident Tests by FTA Region

Accidents and Fatalities Resulting in Post-Accident Positives by FTA Region


Drugs

Alcohol

Region

Non-Fatal Accidents

Fatal

Accidents

Total

Fatalities

Non-Fatal Accidents

Fatal

Accidents

Total

Fatalities

1

3

0

0

0

0

0

2

14

0

0

2

0

0

3

6

0

0

2

0

0

4

4

0

0

1

0

0

5

36

0

0

0

0

0

6

18

0

0

1

0

0

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

8

0

0

0

0

0

9

29

0

0

2

0

0

10

2

0

0

0

0

0

As mentioned in Section 3.2, the number of accidents in which a transit agency employee or contractor tested positive in an FTA post-accident test cannot be expressed as a rate, and the data reported cannot be normalized by FTA region. The number of accidents, fatal accidents, and total fatalities that were reported are presented by region in the table at right. The numbers for non-fatal accidents are subdivided by employer type and by employer size, respectively, in the two tables below. Because no fatal accidents were reported in 2001, the columns with fatality data are not included in those tables.

It should be noted that one person may test positive for both drugs and alcohol and that most employers test the employee for both drugs and alcohol. Thus, the numbers for drugs and alcohol cannot be added to obtain the total number of persons who tested positive. Data were not reported on the total number of persons testing positive in a post-accident test or for persons testing positive for both drugs and alcohol.

 

Non-Fatal Accidents Resulting in Post-Accident Positives by FTA Region and Employer Type


Drugs

Alcohol

Region

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

1

3

0

0

0

2

8

6

2

0

3

5

1

2

0

4

2

2

1

0

5

27

9

0

0

6

3

15

0

1

7

0

0

0

0

8

2

6

0

0

9

14

15

0

2

10

1

1

0

0

Non-Fatal Accidents Resulting in Post-Accident Positives by FTA Region and Employer Size

Drugs

Alcohol

Region

Large Small Rural Large Small Rural

1

3

0

0

0

0

0

2

14

0

0

2

0

0

3

6

0

0

2

0

0

4

3

1

0

1

0

0

5

35

0

1

0

0

0

6

16

2

0

1

0

0

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

7

0

1

0

0

0

9

29

0

0

2

0

0

10

2

0

0

0

0

0