Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2003 Annual Report

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REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE

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OMB No. 0704-0188

Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503.

1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank)

 

2. REPORT DATE

September 2005

3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED

Final Report

January 2003-December 2003

4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2003 Annual Report

 

5. FUNDING NUMBERS

 

TMB8/BB241

6. AUTHOR(S)

Randy Clarke*, Robert Gaumer*, Michael Redington, and Eve Rutyna

 

7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

U.S. Department of Transportation

Research and Innovative Technology Administration

John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center

55 Broadway

Cambridge, MA 02142-1093

8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

REPORT NUMBER

 

DOT-VNTSC-FTA-05-06

 

9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

U.S. Department of Transportation

Federal Transit Administration

Office of Safety and Security

Washington, DC 20590

10.SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER

FTA-MA-26-0054-06-1

 

11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

*Chenega Advanced Solutions and Engineering (CASE).

55 Broadway

Cambridge, MA 02142-1093

12a. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161

12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE

 

 

13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words)

This is the eighth annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. The report summarizes the new reporting requirements introduced for calendar year 2003, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol testing program (the revised CFR Part 40 and CFR Part 655), the results from the data reported for 2003, and the random drug and alcohol violation rates (the percentage of persons selected for a random test who produced a positive specimen or refused to take the test) for calendar years 1996 through 2003.

 

The results of drug tests-for marijuana, cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), opiates, and amphetamines-are compared with the results of alcohol tests for the various types of required tests. Statistics are presented for random, post-accident, reasonable suspicion, and pre-employment tests combined and for each individual test type. Those test results are further compared by employer type (transit agencies and contractors), employer size (large, small, and rural), employee category, FTA region, and the drug type.

 

Statistics on employees returned to duty and results of return to duty tests and follow-up tests are presented separately from results of the other four test types because return-to-duty tests and follow-up tests represent a different segment of the test population and not all employers offer rehabilitation.

 

14. SUBJECT TERMS

alcohol testing, drug testing, random testing, safety-sensitive, return to duty, rates

15. NUMBER OF PAGES

; 84

16. PRICE CODE

 

17.SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT

Unclassified

18.SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE

Unclassified

19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS ABSTRACT

Unclassified

20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

 

Unlimited

NSN 7540-01-280-5500

Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89)

Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18

298-102

 

 

Preface

 

This annual report represents the cooperative efforts of many people. Extensive appreciation is extended to the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration, the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, and the following individuals who were instrumental in guiding this project and contributing to its success:

 

Michael Taborn

Director, Office of Transit Safety and Security

Federal Transit Administration

 

Jerry Powers

Drug and Alcohol Program Manager

Federal Transit Administration

 

Michael R. Redington

Program Manager/Transportation Industry Analyst

Volpe National Transportation Systems Center

 

METRIC/ENGLISH CONVERSION FACTORS

 

 

 

 

For more exact and or other conversion factors, see NIST Miscellaneous Publication 286, Units of Weights and Measures. Price $2.50 SD Catalog No. C13 10286 Updated 6/17/98



Executive Summary

 

Federal Transit Administration (FTA) regulations require that each recipient (both direct and indirect) of FTA funds (1) implement an anti-drug program to deter and detect the use of prohibited drugs, (2) establish a program to prevent the misuse of alcohol, and (3) report the results of its programs to FTA upon request. Compliance with FTA's drug and alcohol testing program is a condition of federal assistance. Failure of a recipient to establish and implement a drug and alcohol testing program - either in its own operations or in those of an entity operating on its behalf - may result in the suspension of FTA funding to the recipient.

 

Employees who perform any of five safety-sensitive functions must be tested for five controlled substances[1] in four circumstances: random, post-accident, reasonable suspicion, and pre-employment. Such employees must also be tested for alcohol use in each of those circumstances except pre-employment, though employers may, and many do, require pre-employment tests per 49CFR Part 40 testing procedures. An additional circumstance (return to duty/follow-up) is required for safety-sensitive employees who are given an opportunity to resume safety-sensitive duties after testing positive for drugs or alcohol or refusing to submit to a required test.

Random Rates

FTA considers random testing to be the most effective deterrent to drug use and alcohol misuse. The results of random tests also provide the best indication of the overall level of drug use and alcohol misuse, and the combined percentage of positive random tests plus random test refusals are used by FTA in determining minimum random testing rates for the following year. The test result rates for drugs and alcohol, respectively, that are used in determining the testing rates for the following year are calculated as follows:

 

(verified drug positives + refusals) ÷ (total number of testing events[2])

(confirmed alcohol positives[3]+ refusals) ÷ (total number of testing events)

In 2003, 1,170 verified random drug test positives and 129 random drug test refusals were reported. Additionally, 37 random alcohol tests were reported with a confirmed blood alcohol level of at least .04, and 11 refusals to take a random alcohol test were reported.

 

Official Random Rates for 2003

 

 

The graph at left shows the "official" rates for random drug and random alcohol tests used by the FTA Administrator in determining future random testing rates.

 

Because the random drug rate must remain below 1.0 percent for two consecutive years before it can be lowered and the rate in 2002 was above 1.0 percent, the random testing rate for drugs remained at 50 percent for 2004. If the rate remains below 1.0 percent in 2004, the FTA Administrator will have the option to reduce the random drug test quota for 2005 to 25 percent.

 

Because the 2003 alcohol rate was below 0.50 percent, the random testing quota for alcohol remained at 10 percent for 2004.

Rates for Four Types of Testing

 

The combined percentages of positive tests plus test refusals shown in the previous graph are compared with the same rates for post-accident, reasonable suspicion, and pre-employment tests and for the four test types combined, in the graph at right. The rates for return to duty and follow-up tests are presented in a separate graph because those tests represent a different segment of the test population (i.e., tests produced by persons who have been removed from duty for drug or alcohol violations and have completed a rehabilitation program) and not all employers offer rehabilitation.

 

As shown, the reasonable suspicion rates were much higher than the random, post-accident, or pre-employment rates for both drugs and alcohol. The random rate was the lowest of the drug rates, significantly lower than the positive rates for any of the other three test types. The pre-employment rate was the lowest of the alcohol rates, and the random rate was slightly higher.

 

There were 135,297 random drug testing events reported in 2003, and 215,443 were reported for the four test types combined. The fewest reported were for reasonable suspicion, at 657. Next was post-accident, at 13,715. There were 42,317 random alcohol testing events reported in 2003, and 65,099 were reported for the four test types combined. The fewest reported were for reasonable suspicion, at 620. Next was post-accident, at 12,490. Only 9,672 pre-employment alcohol testing events were reported compared with 65,774 for drugs, reflecting the fact that pre-employment drug testing is required and pre-employment alcohol testing is not required.

Employer Type and Size

As shown in the following two graphs, the rates for contractors were higher than those for transit agency employees for each test type for drugs and for each test type for alcohol except random, which was slightly higher for transit employees. The random drug rate was more than twice as high for contractors. The combined alcohol rate was also nearly twice as high for contractors, and the combined drug rate was more than two-and-one-half times as high for contractors. Many more testing events were reported for transit agency employees than for contractors for both drugs and alcohol-three to four times as many for each test type except pre-employment events, twice as many for pre-employment alcohol tests and one-third more for pre-employment drug tests.

 

 

As shown in the next two graphs, the rates for the three employer size categories were very similar for the four types combined for both drugs and alcohol. The greatest variation in both the drug and alcohol rates by employer size was for reasonable suspicion, and large employers reported the lowest rates for both. Small employers reported the highest random drug rates, and rural employers reported the highest random alcohol rates. More than 80 percent of the testing events reported for both drugs and alcohol were reported by large employers. Rural employers reported approximately twice as many random testing events as small employers for both drugs and alcohol. That ratio of testing events is approximately the same for all four test types combined.

 

Employee Category

The armed security personnel category had the lowest drug rate for all test types and the lowest alcohol rate for all test types except random. The CDL[4]/non-revenue vehicle category had the highest drug rate for all test types except reasonable suspicion, the highest random alcohol rate, and the highest combined rate for alcohol. The vast majority of testing events reported for both drugs and alcohol were for the revenue vehicle operation category- approximately 70 percent of random tests, more than 80 percent of pre-employment and reasonable suspicion tests, and nearly 95 percent of post-accident tests. The revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance category had the second largest number of reported testing events for each test type for both drugs and alcohol.

 

 

 

FTA Region

As shown on the map at right, the random drug rate was lowest in Region 2 at 0.63 percent, and was highest in Region 8 at 1.42 percent. Half of the regions had rates lower than the national average of 0.96 percent. The other half were more than 1.0 percent.

 

 

As shown on the map at right, the random alcohol rate was zero in Region 8 and was by far the highest in Region 7 at 0.49 percent. Half of the regions had rates higher than the national average of 0.11 percent. All but Region 7 were less than 0.20 percent.

 

Type of Drug

As shown in the following charts, marijuana was detected more often than all of the other drugs combined in random testing, post-accident testing, pre-employment testing, and all four test types combined. Cocaine was detected most often in reasonable suspicion tests, and marijuana was second.

 

Rates for Return to Duty Testing and Follow-Up Testing

Before being returned to duty, employees must complete a rehabilitation program and submit either a negative drug specimen or a negative alcohol screen, depending on the test that the employee initially failed or refused to take.

 

 

In 2003, 1,283 return to duty drug testing events, 713 return to duty alcohol testing events, 7,980 follow-up drug testing events, and 5,950 follow-up alcohol testing events were reported. Only three positive return to duty alcohol tests and one refusal were reported. Only 17 positive follow-up alcohol tests and two refusals were reported. As shown in the graphs at right, the return to duty rates were higher than follow-up rates for both drugs and alcohol, and the alcohol rates were much lower than the drug rates.

 

 

Approximately 80 percent of the return to duty drug testing events were reported by transit agencies, and approximately 90 percent of return to duty alcohol testing events were reported by transit agencies. As shown in the graph at near right below, both the return to duty drug and alcohol rates for transit employees were higher than those for contractors. No positive alcohol tests or refusals were reported by contractors. More than 80 percent of the return to duty testing events were reported by large employers, and more than 90 percent of the alcohol testing events were reported by large employers. As shown in the graph at far right (above, the return to duty drug rate was much higher for large employers than that for small or rural employers, and no positive alcohol tests or refusals were reported by small or rural employers.

 

 

Approximately 90 percent of the follow-up testing events for both drugs and alcohol were reported by transit agencies. As shown in the graph at near right, the follow-up drug rates for contractors were twice as high as those for transit employees while the alcohol rate for transit agency employees was nearly twice as high as that for contractors. Nearly 95 percent of the follow-up drug testing events were reported by large employers, and nearly 98 percent of the follow-up alcohol testing events were reported by large employers. As shown in the graph at far right on the previous page, both the follow-up drug and alcohol rates for large employers were much lower than those for small or rural employers, and both rates for small and rural were similar. Despite the relatively high rates, only one positive alcohol test and no refusals were reported by both small and rural employers.

 

Trends: 1996 through 2003

In 2001, FTA eliminated its requirement that all direct recipients report data each year, and developed a random sampling technique to select a portion of the recipients to report their data. Therefore, the only rates that can be reliably compared for each year of reporting (from 1996 to 2003) are random rates. The results actually reported in 2001 and 2002 do not accurately reflect total FTA testing due to the large proportion of results reported by large employers. Thus, the results from random testing were weighted to obtain "official" random rates that reasonably estimate the rate for all persons tested, enabling reliable comparison with the years before 2001 when all employers were required to report. Weighted rates are not available for any test types other than random or any subsets of random testing.

 

As shown in the following graph, the official random drug rate dropped in 2003 to the lowest rate (0.96 percent) since employers in all size categories were required to report, following its only rise (in 2002). The 2003 rate was 40 percent lower than the rate in 1996. As also shown in the next graph, the official random alcohol rate dropped by 50 percent in 2003 to 0.11 percent, by far the lowest rate since employers in all size categories were required to report.

 

Official Random Drug and Alcohol Rates: 1996 to 2003



Table of Contents

1. Introduction

1.1 Regulatory Background

1.2 Reporting and Certification Requirements

1.3 Reporting Assistance

1.4 Data Analysis and Validation

1.5 Organization of Report

 

2. Overview of Part 40 and Part 655 Testing Requirements

2.1 Overview of Required Testing Program

2.2 Safety-Sensitive Functions

2.3 Types of Tests

2.4 Types of Drugs

 

3. Random Drug and Alcohol Rate

3.1 Official Random Rates for 2003

3.2 Official Random Rate Trends

 

4. Drug and Alcohol Data for Four Required Test Types

4.1 Test Data by Employer Type and Size

4.2 Test Data by Employee Category

4.2.1 Test Data by Employee Category and Employer Type

4.2.2 Test Data by Employee Category and Employer Size

4.3 Test Data by FTA Region

4.3.1 Data for Test Types by FTA Region and Employer Type

4.3.2 Data for Test Types by FTA Region and Employer Size

4.4 Test Data by Type of Drug

4.4.1 Data by Test Type, Employer Type, and Drug Type

4.4.2 Data by Test Type, Employer Size, and Drug Type

4.4.3 Data by Test Type, Employee Category, and Drug Type

4.5 Confirmed Alcohol Specimens Between 0.02 and 0.039

 

5. Drug and Alcohol Data for Return to Duty Testing and Follow-Up Testing

5.1 Return to Duty Test Data

5.1.1 Return to Duty Test Data by Employer Type and Size

5.1.2 Return to Duty Test Data by Employee Category

5.1.3 Return to Duty Test Data by FTA Region

5.1.4 Return to Duty Test Data by Type of Drug

5.2 Follow-Up Test Data

5.2.1 Follow-Up Test Data by Employer Type and Size

5.2.2 Follow-Up Test Data by Employee Category

5.2.3 Follow-Up Test Data by FTA Region

5.2.4 Follow-Up Test Data by Type of Drug

 

Appendix A. Glossary

Appendix B. FTA Regions

Appendix C. MIS Data Collection Form


1. Introduction

 

This report is the eighth annual summary of data submitted for entry in the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Management Information System (DAMIS). The report summarizes data reported for calendar year 2003, and includes a comparison of official random drug and alcohol test rates for calendar years 1996 through 2003. DAMIS contains the data from all the drug and alcohol tests conducted under FTA regulations between 1996 and 2000, but contains data from only selected agencies for the years since 2000, as explained in Section 1.2. DAMIS also contains the data from all the tests conducted by large agencies in 1995.

 

FTA regulations require recipients and subrecipients of funding under Title 49 of United States Code (U.S.C.) Sections 5307, 5309, and 5311, and 23 U.S.C. Section 103(e)(4) and their contractors to implement and maintain a program to deter and detect use of prohibited drugs and misuse of alcohol by safety-sensitive employees, unless the recipient is also an operating railroad regulated by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA).

 

 

Section 5307 of 49 U.S.C. refers to block grants to finance capital projects and the planning, improvement, and operating costs of equipment, facilities, and associated capital maintenance items for use in mass transportation.

 

Section 5309 refers to discretionary grants and loans for capital projects, new and existing fixed guideway systems, an efficient mass transportation system coordinated with other transportation systems, introduction of new technologies, enhancement of urban economic development or incorporation of private investment, and mass transportation projects to meet the needs of the elderly and persons with disabilities.

 

Section 5311 refers to financial assistance for non-urbanized areas.

 

Section 103(e)(4) of 23 U.S.C. refers to grants to bus transit systems that operate on Federal-aid highway systems.

 

 

1.1 Regulatory Background

FTA issued its first drug and alcohol testing regulations on February 15, 1994 as two separate rules: 49 CFR Part 653, Prevention of Prohibited Drug Use in Transit Operations, and 49 CFR Part 654, Prevention of Alcohol Misuse in Transit Operations. The FTA rules were issued in response to The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act, enacted by Congress in 1991. They expanded the minimum uniform U.S Department of Transportation (DOT) testing program requirements published earlier in 1994 in 49 CFR Part 40, Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs.

 

The Omnibus Testing Act was intended to promote the health and safety of transportation employees and the traveling public. It required all DOT administrations to issue regulations requiring funding recipients to perform four types of testing of all safety-sensitive employees for five controlled substances and alcohol, and to establish a prescribed program of rehabilitation and follow-up testing for employees who are given the opportunity to return to safety-sensitive duty after testing positive or refusing to be tested. The Act also required recipients to follow the testing procedures established by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).

 

DOT revised and reissued Part 40 in 2000, and amended certain provisions in 2003 and 2004. In 2001, FTA issued CFR Part 655, Prevention of Alcohol Misuse and Prohibited Drug Use in Transit Operations, to expand the revised department-wide minimum requirements to transit operations. Part 655 supersedes and combines Parts 653 and 654. Per the addition of Section 25 to Part 40 in 2003, a testing event includes test refusals but not canceled tests. The current Part 40 and 655 testing requirements are summarized in Chapter 2 of this report.

1.2 Reporting and Certification Requirements

 

Part 655.72 eliminated the requirement that all direct funding recipients report their drug and alcohol testing program data to FTA annually. It requires that recipients report their data only if requested by FTA. In 2001, FTA developed a stratified random sampling technique to produce an accurate representation of the overall transit industry, in lieu of universal reporting. The intent was to reduce the paperwork burden on a portion of the industry.

 

Recipients requested to report must do so by March 15. The procedures for reporting in 2003 and the form to be used changed, per the addition of Section 26 and Appendix H of Part 40 (in July 2003). Recipients must either enter the data via internet on the FTA Office of Safety and Security web site: http://transit-safety.volpe.dot.gov/damis. The form, which appears in Appendix C, eliminates some of the previous requirements, but now requires submittal of refusal data by type of refusal for all test types.

 

All direct recipients must annually prepare and maintain a summary of the results of the DOT-regulated programs that they oversaw during the previous calendar year. All direct recipients must also annually certify regulatory compliance of those programs, and submit the certifications to their FTA regional office.

 

All grantees must ensure the accuracy and timeliness of each report submitted by their subrecipients. All direct recipients must ensure the accuracy and timeliness of each report submitted by a safety-sensitive contractor or subcontractor.

 

Failure of a recipient to establish a drug and alcohol testing program and to annually certify regulatory compliance and report information as requested, either in its own operations or in those of a subrecipient or an entity operating on its behalf, may result in the suspension of FTA funding to the recipient. Falsifying compliance information or certifications is a criminal offense.

1.3 Reporting Assistance

Assistance on accessing the FTA Office of Safety and Security web site and using the internet reporting system is available from the FTA DAMIS Project Office at (617) 494-6336, FTA.damis@volpe.dot.gov. The FTA Safety and Security Clearinghouse can be reached at (617) 494-2108 for additional copies of this report, as well as previously published annual reports. Other technical assistance materials, including the Implementation Guidelines for Drug and Alcohol Regulations in Mass Transit and Best Practices Manual: FTA Drug and Alcohol Testing Program, can be obtained from the FTA Safety and Security Clearinghouse, (617) 494-2108, and on the web site: http://transit-safety.volpe.dot.gov/damis.

1.4 Data Analysis and Validation

Data submitted for entry in DAMIS are subjected to extensive analysis and validation, both manual and automated. The process entails detailed review of the consistency and reasonableness of the data in each report, identification of errors or questionable entries, and resolution of any problems in consultation with the reporting agencies. This process enables detection and correction of errors of significant magnitude. However, some statistically minor errors may remain.

1.5 Organization of Report

The remainder of this report contains five chapters and three appendices:


2. Overview of Part 40 and Part 655 Testing Requirements

This chapter summarizes the requirements of the FTA Drug and Alcohol Testing Program (in Section 2.1) and describes in detail FTA safety-sensitive functions, the tests required by FTA, and the drugs that safety-sensitive employees must be tested for (in Sections 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4, respectively).

 

2.1 Overview of Required Testing Program

 

Employees who perform any of five safety-sensitive functions must be tested for five controlled substances in four circumstances. Such employees must also be tested for alcohol use in each of those circumstances except pre-employment, though employers may, and many do, require pre-employment tests per Part 40 testing procedures. An additional circumstance (return to duty/follow-up) is required for safety-sensitive employees who are given an opportunity to resume safety-sensitive duties after testing positive for drugs or alcohol or refusing to submit to a required test.

 

Safety-Sensitive Employee Categories

Revenue Vehicle Operation
Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle
Armed Security Personnel

Test Types

Random
Post-accident
Reasonable suspicion
Pre-employment
*Return to duty/follow-up

Drug Types

Marijuana
Cocaine
Phencyclidine (PCP)
Opiates
Amphetamines

See Section 2.2 for a detailed description of FTA safety-sensitive duties.

See Section 2.3 for a detailed description of tests required by FTA.

See Section 2.4 for a detailed description of the drugs to test for.

*Required only for employees who test positive for drugs or alcohol or refuse to take a test

 

 

Any employee who has a verified positive drug test, has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or refuses to submit to a test must be immediately removed from safety-sensitive duty. The employee must then be informed of the resources available for evaluating and resolving problems associated with prohibited drug use and alcohol misuse, including the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of substance abuse professionals (SAPs). The employer then decides which disciplinary action to take. To return the employee to a safety-sensitive function, the employer must ensure that the employee successfully completes a course of treatment prescribed by a SAP and produces a negative return to duty test for drugs or alcohol or both, depending on the evaluation and recommendation of the SAP. Once returned to duty, the employee must continue a treatment program administered by the SAP, which includes a series of follow-up tests.

 

Part 40, Section 26 and Appendix H (added in 2003) identify four types of drug test refusals and two types of alcohol test refusals:

Drug test refusal types:

Alcohol test refusal types:

Additionally, an employee with a confirmed alcohol concentration of at least 0.02 but less than 0.04 must be removed from duty for at least 8 hours or until a re-test conducted by the employer shows an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02. If the employee is removed from duty for 8 hours, a re-test need not be administered unless the employee exhibits signs of alcohol use upon returning to duty.

 

Part 40 also prohibits use, manufacture, distribution, dispensing, and possession of all controlled substances by safety-sensitive employees. Furthermore, Parts 40 and 655 prohibit safety-sensitive employees from consuming alcohol in three circumstances:

 

2.2 Safety-Sensitive Functions

 

The revenue vehicle operation safety-sensitive job category includes employees who operate a revenue service vehicle, regardless of whether it is in service.

 

The revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance category includes employees who maintain revenue service vehicles or equipment. It also includes many maintenance contract employees who perform routine, ongoing repair or maintenance for FTA recipients and subrecipients that have employees, including supervisors, who perform or could be called upon to perform any of the FTA safety-sensitive functions. Maintenance contractors of 5311 funding recipients are not subject to the testing regulations. Additionally, recipients that operate in areas with a population of 200,000 or less and contract out maintenance services are no longer required to comply.

 

Revenue vehicle control/dispatching includes employees who control the movement of revenue service vehicles. The key consideration is the type of work performed rather than a particular job title. FTA decided not to attempt a universal definition of "dispatchers" in Part 655. Instead, each employer determines whether its particular dispatcher performs or may perform a safety-sensitive function.

 

CDL/non-revenue vehicle includes employees not included in another safety-sensitive category who operate a non-revenue service vehicle (e.g., ancillary vehicle) that requires a Commercial Drivers License (CDL).

 

Armed security personnel are employees who provide security and carry a firearm.

 

2.3 Types of Tests

 

Random testing is considered by FTA to be the most effective deterrent to drug use and alcohol misuse, as well as the most reliable indicator of drug use and alcohol misuse within an employer and in the industry as a whole, provided it is unannounced and unpredictable. Selections for testing must be based on a scientifically valid random-number selection method, to ensure that all safety-sensitive employees have an equal chance of being selected for testing each time a selection is made.

 

In 2003, the number of random drug tests conducted had to equal a minimum of 50 percent of the average number of safety-sensitive employees in the selection pool, and the number of alcohol tests had to equal a minimum of 10 percent of the pool. These percentages can be amended (per Part 655.45) by the FTA Administrator based on the combined percentage of positive tests plus test refusals, i.e.:

(verified drug positives + refusals) ÷ (total number of testing events[5])

(confirmed alcohol positives[6]+ refusals) ÷ (total number of testing events)

 

The testing rate for employers who belong to a consortium applies to the average number of safety-sensitive employees in the consortium's pool. As a result, some individual employers may not appear to meet the random testing requirement, but actually do meet the requirement as long as the consortium, as a whole, tests the minimum number required.

 

Post-accident testing refers to tests required following an accident involving a fatality or an accident that meets any of three other criteria and the employee's involvement cannot be completely discounted as a contributing factor: (1) when a person suffers a bodily injury and immediately receives medical attention away from the scene, (2) when any vehicle involved in the accident incurs damage requiring it to be transported away from the scene by a tow truck or other vehicle, or (3) the mass transit vehicle involved is a rail car, trolley car, trolley bus, or vessel and is removed from revenue service due to the accident.

 

Employees to be tested include the vehicle operator and any other safety-sensitive employee not in the vehicle whose performance could have contributed to the accident. Both drug and alcohol tests must be administered as soon as possible, but no later than 8 hours after the accident for alcohol and 32 hours for drugs.

 

Reasonable suspicion testing refers to a drug and/or alcohol test that is ordered by a trained supervisor based on specific, contemporaneous, articulable observations concerning the appearance, behavior, speech, or body odor of a safety-sensitive employee.

 

Pre-employment testing refers to testing of candidates for a safety-sensitive position (including existing non-safety-sensitive employees as well as applicants for employment) and for employees who have not performed a safety-sensitive function for more than 90 consecutive calendar days, regardless of the reason, and were removed from the employer's random selection pool during that time. A negative pre-employment test for drugs is required by FTA as a condition for performing safety-sensitive duties under these circumstances. Pre-employment alcohol tests are not required but are permitted under Part 655 providing they are performed in accordance with the testing procedures in Part 40. The alcohol tests are included in the data presented in Chapter 3 because they are conducted per DOT standards and are required by many employers.

 

The Omnibus Testing Act required a negative pre-employment alcohol test, but FTA suspended the requirement on May 10, 1995, as the result of a U.S. Court of Appeals decision. FTA decided to allow but not require pre-employment alcohol testing in Part 655.

 

Part 655 also eliminated the term "hire" in the pre-employment provision. Previously, employers were required to administer a drug test and receive a negative result before hiring an employee. FTA deleted the term to provide employers discretion to administer a pre-employment drug test anytime before an employee first performs a safety-sensitive function and before an employee returns to safety-sensitive duty after being removed from the random pool for an extended period. Part 655 also established a limit, 90 consecutive calendar days, on the amount of time an employee can be removed from the pool without a negative drug test before returning to work.

 

Return to duty testing refers to a drug and/or alcohol test that is required for a safety-sensitive employee who completes a course of treatment prescribed by a SAP after testing positive for drugs or alcohol or refusing to submit to a required test. A negative result for the type (drug or alcohol) of positive or refused test is required before the employee can be returned to duty. SAPs often require the employee to submit to both a drug and an alcohol test even if only one of the tests was at issue.

 

Follow-up testing refers to a drug or alcohol test that is required for an employee who is returned to safety-sensitive duty. The employee is subject to at least six unannounced tests for at least 12 months after returning to duty. The exact number and frequency of tests is prescribed by the SAP, who may order tests for up to 60 months after return to duty. SAPs often require the employee to submit to both a drug and an alcohol test even if only one of the tests was at issue. Follow-up testing is separate from, and in addition to, random testing.

 

Part 655 incorporates follow-up testing under return to duty testing (i.e., return to duty/follow-up testing) as one of five required FTA tests. It was previously listed separately as one of six required FTA tests.

 

2.4 Types of Drugs

 

Marijuana is derived from the hemp plant and comes in a variety of colors such as green, brown, and a gray mixture of leaves. THC or (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is the primary active chemical in marijuana. It is absorbed quickly into fatty tissues and stored for a long time. The potency and strength of the chemical causes people to use the drug for the mildly tranquilizing, mood and perception-altering effects it produces. The test for marijuana also includes its metabolites.

 

Cocaine is an addictive substance that comes from coca leaves, or is made synthetically. It appears as a white powder that is snorted, ingested, injected, freebased (smoked), or applied directly to the nasal membrane or gums. Cocaine acts as a stimulant to the central nervous system. It gives the user a feeling of exhilaration. The chemicals in cocaine trick the brain into feeling it has experienced pleasure, when in fact it has not.

 

Phencyclidine (PCP), originally developed as an anesthetic, has adverse side effects that limit its medical use to a tranquilizer for large animals. In people, PCP acts as both a depressant and a hallucinogen, and sometimes as a stimulant. PCP can cause distorted bodily perceptions and a feeling of disassociation where the mind feels separated from the body. These effects can be very upsetting to some people, who may panic as a result.

 

Opiates, also known as narcotic analgesics, include heroin, morphine, and codeine. They are derived from a sap taken from a seedpod of the plant, "papaver somniferum" (or poppy plant). General effects include sedation, slowed reflexes, raspy speech, sluggish movements, slowed breathing, cold skin, and vomiting. The synthetic form of opiates, known as a designer drug, is even more deadly and addictive.

 

Amphetamines include racemic, amphetamine, extroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. They are potent stimulants that can be swallowed, snorted, or injected. They reduce the desire to sleep or eat and can induce a sense of aroused euphoria, accompanied by feelings of increased power, strength, energy, self-assertion, focus, and motivation. Because the body does not readily break down amphetamines, these feelings, which are often intense and ephemeral, may last several hours. Severe mental depression and fatigue can set in when the euphoric feelings wear off.


3. Random Drug and Alcohol Rates

 

As mentioned in Section 2.3, the results of random tests provide the best indication of the overall level of drug use and alcohol misuse, and the combined percentage of positive random tests plus random test refusals are used by FTA in determining minimum random testing rates for the following year. The test result rates for drugs and alcohol, respectively, that are used in determining the random testing rates for the following year are calculated as follows:

 

(verified drug positives + refusals) ÷ (total number of testing events[7])

(confirmed alcohol positives[8]+ refusals) ÷ (total number of testing events)

 

3.1 Official Random Rates for 2003

 

The graph at right shows the "official" rates for random drug and random alcohol tests used by the FTA Administrator in determining the random testing rates for 2004. The accompanying table provides the statistical basis for the rates. These data are subdivided by employer type and size, employee category, and FTA region and are compared with data from post-accident, reasonable suspicion, and pre-employment tests in Chapter 4. The refusal data are also subdivided by the types of refusals (defined in Section 2.1) in Chapter 4.

 

 

Random Tests, Positives, and Refusals

 

Drugs

Alcohol

Testing Events

135,297

42,317

Refusals + Positives

1,299

48

Positives

1,170

37

Total Refusals

129

11

Refusal to take test

83

8

Shy Bladder/ Lung

27

3

Adulterated

15

N. A.

Substituted

4

N. A.

Refusal Rate

0.095

0.026

 

 

Because the official random drug rate for 2002 was above 1.0 percent (as shown in the graph in Section 3.2), the random testing rate for drugs remained at 50 percent in 2004, despite the drop below 1.0 percent in 2003. If the rate remains below 1.0 percent in 2004, the FTA Administrator will have the option to reduce the random drug test rate for 2005 to 25 percent of all safety-sensitive employers. Because the 2003 alcohol rate remained well below 0.50 percent, the random testing quota for alcohol remained at 10 percent in 2004.

 

 

3.2 Official Random Rate Trends

Because the data reporting requirement changed in 2001, the only rates that can be reliably compared for each year of reporting (from 1996 to 2003) are random rates. The results actually reported in 2001 and 2002 did not accurately reflect total FTA testing due to the high proportion of results reported by large employers. The results from random testing were weighted to obtain "official" random rates that reasonably estimate the rate for all persons tested, enabling reliable comparison with the years before 2001 when all employers were required to report. Weighted rates are not available for any test types other than random or any subsets of the random testing.

 

As shown in the following graph, the official random drug rate dropped in 2003 to the lowest rate (0.96 percent) since employers in all size categories were required to report, following its only rise (in 2002). The 2003 rate was 40 percent lower than the rate in 1996.

 

As also shown in the next graph, the official random alcohol rate dropped by 50 percent in 2003 to 0.11 percent, by far the lowest rate since employers in all size categories were required to report.

 

Official Random Drug and Alcohol Test Rates: 1996 to 2003

 


4. Drug and Alcohol Data for Four Required Test Types

 

This chapter presents data from the four circumstances cited in Chapter 2 that must be performed by all employers subject to Part 655[9]: random, post-accident, reasonable suspicion, and pre-employment. Data from the other testing circumstance cited in Chapter 2 (return to duty tests and follow-up tests) are presented separately (in Chapter 5) from data for the other four test types because that test type represents a different segment of the test population-specimens produced by persons who have already been removed from duty for drug or alcohol violations and have completed a rehabilitation program-and not all employers offer rehabilitation.

 

The following two charts compare the combined percentage of positive tests plus test refusals and the percentages of total drug tests reported in 2003 for each of the four test types. The two charts on the next page compare the combined percentage of positive tests plus test refusals and percentages of total alcohol tests reported in 2003 for each of the four test types. The combined percentages of positive tests plus refusals are calculated as follows:

 

(verified drug positives + refusals) ÷ (total number of testing events[10])

(confirmed alcohol positives[11]+ refusals) ÷ (total number of testing events)

 

 

 

 

The rates[12] for each of the four test types and for the four types combined, for both drugs and alcohol, appear in the graph at right. The table below provides the statistical basis for the rates. These data are subdivided by employer type and size, employee category, FTA region, and type of drug in Sections 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4, respectively. Confirmed alcohol specimens between 0.02 and 0.039 are presented by test type in Section 4.5 and are subdivided by employer type, employer size, employee category, and FTA region.

 

 

 

Tests, Positives, and Refusals by Test Type

Drugs Alcohol
Random Post-Accident Reasonable Suspicion Pre-Employment Total Random Post-Accident Reasonable Suspicion Pre-Employment Total
Testing Events 135,297 13,715 657 65,774 215,443 42,317 12,490 620 9,672 65,099
Refusals + Positives 1,299 224 60 1,651 3,234 48 24 73 9 154
Positives 1,170 204 55 1,562 2,991 37 10 68 8 123
Total Refusals 129 20 5 89 243 11 14 5 1 31
Refusal to take test 83 16 4 59 162 8 11 5 0 24
Shy Bladder/Lung 27 2 1 4 34 3 3 0 1 7
Adulterated 15 0 0 15 30 N. A. N. A. N. A. N. A. N. A.
Substituted 4 2 0 11 17 N. A. N. A. N. A. N. A. N. A.
Refusal Rate 0.095 0.146 0.761 0.135 0.113 0.026 0.112 0.806 0.010 0.048

 

4.1 Data for Four Test Types by Employer Type and Size

 

The data above are subdivided by employer type, by employer size, and by employer size and type combined, respectively, in this section. The rates for each data set are shown in a separate pair of graphs. Each graph pair is followed by a table or tables that provide the statistical basis for the rates.

 

Because all of the alcohol rates by employer type except reasonable suspicion are less than 0.5 percent, the space below "0.5" in the following alcohol graph is expanded under the divider line to allow greater clarity.

 

 

 

Tests, Positives, and Refusals by Test Type and Employer Type

Drugs

Random

Post-Accident

Reasonable Suspicion

Pre-Employment

Total

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Testing Events

108,239

27,058

10,753

2,962

486

171

37,597

28,177

157,075

58,368

Refusals + Positives

847

452

123

101

32

28

683

968

1,685

1,549

Positives

771

399

115

89

28

27

655

907

1,569

1,422

Total Refusals

76

53

8

12

4

1

28

61

116

127

Refusal to take test

47

36

5

11

3

1

19

40

74

88

Shy Bladder

19

8

1

1

1

0

1

3

22

12

Adulterated

6

9

0

0

0

0

4

11

10

20

Substituted

4

0

2

0

0

0

3

8

9

8

Refusal Rate

0.070

0.196

0.074

0.405

0.823

0.585

0.074

0.216

0.074

0.218


Tests, Positives, and Refusals by Test Type and Employer Type

Alcohol

Random

Post-Accident

Reasonable Suspicion

Pre-Employment

Total

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Testing Events

34,446

7,871

10,038

2,452

462

158

6,650

3,022

51,596

13,503

Refusals + Positives

40

8

14

10

45

28

6

3

105

49

Positives

32

5

8

2

44

24

5

3

89

34

Total Refusals

8

3

6

8

1

4

1

0

16

15

Refusal to take test

5

3

3

8

1

4

0

0

9

15

Shy Lung

3

0

3

0

0

0

1

0

7

0

Refusal Rate

0.023

0.038

0.060

0.326

0.216

2.532

0.015

0

0.031

0.111

 

 

 

Because the reasonable suspicion drug rates by employer size are much higher than those for the other types, separate scales are used in the following graph.

 

 

Because all of the alcohol rates by employer size except reasonable suspicion are less than 0.3 percent, the space below "0.3" in the following alcohol graph is expanded under the divider line to allow greater clarity.

 

 

 

Tests, Positives, and Refusals by Test Type and Employer Size

Drugs

Random

Post-Accident

Reasonable Suspicion

Pre-Employment

Total

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

TE

108,735

8,556

18,006

11,592

1,104

1,019

559

43

55

49,860

4,678

11,236

170,746

14,381

30,316

R+P

1,063

89

147

196

15

13

41

5

14

1,363

111

177

2,663

220

351

P

967

76

127

178

13

13

39

5

11

1,290

102

170

2,474

196

321

TR

96

13

20

18

2

0

2

0

3

73

9

7

189

24

30

RTT

60

7

16

14

2

0

1

0

3

50

5

4

125

14

23

SB

18

6

3

2

0

0

1

0

0

2

1

1

23

7

4

Adul

14

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

15

0

0

29

0

1

Sub

4

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

6

3

2

12

3

2

R Rate

0.088

0.152

0.111

0.155

0.181

0.000

0.358

0.000

5.455

0.146

0.192

0.062

0.111

0.167

0.099

Alcohol

Random

Post-Accident

Reasonable Suspicion

Pre-Employment

Total

 

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

TE

34,699

2,530

5,088

10,853

899

738

538

40

42

8,290

456

926

54,380

3,925

6,794

R+P

35

4

9

23

0

1

60

6

7

8

0

1

126

10

18

P

29

4

4

10

0

0

56

6

6

7

0

1

102

10

11

TR

6

0

5

13

0

1

4

0

1

1

0

0

24

0

7

RTT

4

0

4

11

0

0

4

0

1

0

0

0

19

0

5

SL

2

0

1

2

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

5

0

2

R Rate

0.017

0.000

0.098

0.120

0.000

0.136

0.743

0.000

2.381

0.012

0

0

0.044

0.000

0.103

TE = testing events P = positives R = refusals TR = total refusals R Rate = refusal rate

RTT = refusal to take test SL = shy lung SB = shy bladder Adul = adulterated Sub = substituted

 

Because four of the reasonable suspicion drug rates by employer size and employer type are much higher than those for the other types, the reasonable suspicion rates are presented on separate scales in the following graph.

 

 

 

Because all of the alcohol rates by employer size and employer type except the reasonable suspicion rates are less than 0.5 percent, the space below "0.5" in the following alcohol graph is expanded under the divider line to allow greater clarity. Additionally, the following graph does not contain columns for employer size that show a rate of "0" in the preceding test type/employer size graph.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Tests, Positives, and Refusals by Test Type, Employer Size, and Employer Type


 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Random

TE

85,550

23,185

6,405

2,151

16,284

1,722

27,875

6,824

1,974

557

4,597

491

R+P

661

402

57

32

129

18

28

7

4

0

8

1

P

611

356

51

25

109

18

25

4

4

0

3

1

TR

50

46

6

7

20

0

3

3

0

0

5

0

RTT

26

34

5

2

16

0

1

3

0

0

4

0

SB

15

3

1

5

3

0

2

0

0

0

1

0

Adul

5

9

0

0

1

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

Sub

4

0

0

0

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

R Rate

0.058

0.198

0.094

0.325

0.123

0

0.011

0.044

0

0

0.109

0

Post-Accident

TE

8,917

2,675

915

189

921

98

8,578

2,275

780

119

680

58

R+P

104

92

9

6

10

3

13

10

0

0

1

0

P

96

82

9

4

10

3

8

2

0

0

0

0

TR

8

10

0

2

0

0

5

8

0

0

1

0

RTT

5

9

0

2

0

0

3

8

0

0

0

0

SB

1

1

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

1

0

Adul

0

0

0

0

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

Sub

2

0

0

0

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

R Rate

0.090

0.374

0

1.058

0

0

0.058

0.352

0

0

0.147

0

Reasonable Suspicion

TE

410

149

27

16

49

6

402

136

25

15

35

7

R+P

19

22

1

4

12

2

34

26

4

2

7

0

P

18

21

1

4

9

2

34

22

4

2

6

0

TR

1

1

0

0

3

0

0

4

0

0

1

0

RTT

0

1

0

0

3

0

0

4

0

0

1

0

SB

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Adul

0

0

0

0

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

Sub

0

0

0

0

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

R Rate

0.244

0.671

0

0

6.122

0

0

2.941

0

0

2.857

0

Pre-Employment

TE

24,855

25,005

2,750

1,928

9,992

1,244

5,439

2,851

362

94

849

77

R+P

479

884

47

64

157

20

5

3

0

0

1

0

P

462

828

42

60

151

19

4

3

0

0

1

0

TR

17

56

5

4

6

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

RTT

12

38

3

2

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

SB

0

2

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

Adul

4

11

0

0

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

Sub

1

5

2

1

1

1

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

R Rate

0.068

0.224

0.182

0.207

0.060

0.080

0.018

0

0

0

0

0

Total

TE

119,732

51,014

10,097

4,284

27,246

3,070

42,294

12,086

3,141

785

6,161

633

R+P

1,263

1,400

114

106

308

43

80

46

8

2

17

1

P

1,263

1,400

114

106

308

43

80

46

8

2

17

1

TR

1,187

1,287

103

93

279

42

71

31

8

2

10

1

RTT

43

82

8

6

23

0

4

15

0

0

5

0

SB

17

6

1

6

4

0

5

0

0

0

2

0

Adul

9

20

0

0

1

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

Sub

7

5

2

1

1

1

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

R Rate

0.063

0.222

0.109

0.303

0.106

0.033

0.021

0.124

0

0

0.114

0.000

RVO = Revenue Vehicle Operation RV&EM = Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

 

 

 

 

 

RVC/D = Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching CDL/N-RV = CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle ASP = Armed Security Personnel

TE = testing events P = positives R = refusals TR = total refusals R Rate = refusal rate

RTT = refusal to take test SB = shy bladder Adul = adulterated Sub = substituted

 

4.2 Data for Four Test Types by Employee Category

The next two graphs show the rates for each test type, as well as the rates for all four types combined, by employee category for drug tests and for alcohol tests, respectively. Because all of the alcohol rates except reasonable suspicion are less than 0.6 percent, the space below "0.6" in the alcohol graph is expanded under the divider line to allow greater clarity. The table on the next page provides the statistical basis for the rates. These data are subdivided by employer type and by employer size later in this section.

 

 

 

Tests, Positives, and Refusals by Test Type and Employee Category

 

Drugs

Alcohol

 

RVO

RV& EM

RVC/D

CDL/N-RV

ASP

RVO

RV&EM

RVC/D

CDL/N-RV

ASP

Random

TE

92,496

27,602

9,515

3,189

2,495

28,702

8,587

2,882

1,254

892

R+P

932

266

58

34

9

34

9

1

3

1

P

843

240

50

32

5

24

9

0

3

1

TR

89

26

8

2

4

10

0

1

0

0

RTT

55

19

5

0

4

7

0

1

0

0

SB

22

2

1

2

0

3

0

0

0

0

Adul

10

3

2

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

Sub

2

2

0

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

R Rate

0.096

0.094

0.084

0.063

0.160

0.035

0

0.035

0

0

Post-Accident

TE

12,783

630

107

91

104

11,719

539

89

79

64

R+P

203

15

0

6

0

21

3

0

0

0

P

185

13

0

6

0

10

0

0

0

0

TR

18

2

0

0

0

11

3

0

0

0

RTT

14

2

0

0

0

9

2

0

0

0

SB

2

0

0

0

0

2

1

0

0

0

Adul

0

0

0

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

Sub

2

0

0

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

R Rate

0.141

0.317

0

0

0

0.094

0.557

0

0

0

Reasonable Suspicion

TE

519

89

28

20

1

491

82

33

14

0

R+P

49

10

1

0

0

58

9

2

4

0

P

46

9

0

0

0

56

7

1

4

0

TR

3

1

1

0

0

2

2

1

0

0

RTT

2

1

1

0

0

2

2

1

0

0

SB

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Adul

0

0

0

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

Sub

0

0

0

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

R Rate

0.578

1.124

3.571

0

0

0.407

2.439

3.030

0

0

Pre-Employment

TE

54,936

6,271

2,197

903

1,467

7,671

1,120

285

154

442

R+P

1,413

127

57

28

26

9

0

0

0

0

P

1,339

122

53

24

24

8

0

0

0

0

TR

74

5

4

4

2

1

0

0

0

0

RTT

47

4

3

3

2

0

0

0

0

0

SB

3

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

Adul

13

0

1

1

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

Sub

11

0

0

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

R Rate

0.135

0.080

0.182

0.443

0.136

0.013

0

0

0

0

Total

TE

160,734

34,592

11,847

4,203

4,067

48,583

10,328

3,289

1,501

1,398

R+P

2,597

418

116

68

35

122

21

3

7

1

P

2,413

384

103

62

29

98

16

1

7

1

TR

184

34

13

6

6

24

5

2

0

0

RTT

118

26

9

3

6

18

4

2

0

0

SB

28

3

1

2

0

6

1

0

0

0

Adul

23

3

3

1

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

Sub

15

2

0

0

0

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

N. A.

R Rate

0.114

0.098

0.110

0.143

0.148

0.049

0.048

0.061

0

0

RVO = Revenue Vehicle Operation RV&EM = Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

 

 

 

 

 

RVC/D = Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching CDL/N-RV = CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle ASP = Armed Security Personnel

TE = testing events P = positives R = refusals TR = total refusals R Rate = refusal rate

RTT = refusal to take test SB = shy bladder Adul = adulterated Sub = substituted

 

4.2.1 Data for Four Test Types by Employee Category and Employer Type

 

The following series of graphs subdivide the preceding test type/employee category rates by employer type. Two graphs, one for drugs and one for alcohol, are presented for the four test types combined and for each test type. They show the rates by employer type for each employee category. This series of graphs is followed by two tables that provide the statistical basis for the rates.

 

 

 

The following graphs do not contain columns for employee categories that show a rate of "0" in the test type/employee category graphs on page 4-8. Some of the rates in two of those graphs are presented on a separate scale because their sample sizes are too small to be representative of their populations.

 

Tests, Positives, and Refusals by Test Type, Employee Category, and Employer Type


 

Drugs

 

Random

Post-Accident

Reasonable Suspicion

Pre-Employment

Total

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

RVO

 

TE

72,705

19,791

10,003

2,780

368

151

31,060

23,876

114,136

46,598

R+P

583

349

110

93

22

27

582

831

1,297

1,300

P

528

315

104

81

20

26

558

781

1,210

1,203

TR

55

34

6

12

2

1

24

50

87

97

RTT

34

21

3

11

1

1

16

31

54

64

SB

17

5

1

1

1

0

2

1

21

7

Adul

2

8

0

0

0

0

3

10

5

18

Sub

2

0

2

0

0

0

3

8

7

8

R Rate

0.076

0.172

0.060

0.432

0.543

0.662

0.077

0.209

0.076

0.208

 

RV&EM

TE

23,256

4,346

526

104

75

14

4,054

2,217

27,911

6,681

R+P

203

63

8

7

9

1

61

66

281

137

P

187

53

6

7

8

1

61

61

262

122

TR

16

10

2

0

1

0

0

5

19

15

RTT

10

9

2

0

1

0

0

4

13

13

SB

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

Adul

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

Sub

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

R Rate

0.069

0.230

0.380

0

1.333

0

0

0.226

0.068

0.225

 

RVC/D

TE

7,471

2,044

81

26

23

5

1,223

974

8,798

3,049

R+P

32

26

0

0

1

0

10

47

43

73

P

28

22

0

0

0

0

10

43

38

65

TR

4

4

0

0

1

0

0

4

5

8

RTT

3

2

0

0

1

0

0

3

4

5

SB

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Adul

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

Sub

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R Rate

0.054

0.196

0

0

4.348

0

0

0.411

0.057

0.262

 

CDL/N-RV

 

TE

2,748

441

79

12

20

0

653

250

3,500

703

R+P

27

7

5

1

0

0

26

2

58

10

P

26

6

5

1

0

0

22

2

53

9

TR

1

1

0

0

0

0

4

0

5

1

RTT

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

3

0

SB

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

Adul

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

Sub

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R Rate

0.036

0.227

0

0

0

0

0.613

0

0.143

0.142

ASP

TE

2,059

436

64

40

0

1

607

860

2,730

1,337

R+P

2

7

0

0

0

0

4

22

6

29

P

2

3

0

0

0

0

4

20

6

23

TR

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

6

RTT

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

6

SB

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Adul

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Sub

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R Rate

0

0.917

0

0

0

0

0

0.233

0

0.449

RVO = Revenue Vehicle Operation RV&EM = Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

 

 

 

 

 

RVC/D = Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching CDL/N-RV = CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle ASP = Armed Security Personnel

TE = testing events P = positives R = refusals TR = total refusals R Rate = refusal rate

RTT = refusal to take test SB = shy bladder Adul = adulterated Sub = substituted

 

Tests, Positives, and Refusals by Test Type, Employee Category, and Employer Type


 

Alcohol

 

Random

Post-Accident

Reasonable Suspicion

Pre-Employment

Total

 

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

RVO

TE

23,022

5,680

9,376

2,343

359

132

5,082

2,589

37,839

10,744

R+P

30

4

12

9

36

22

6

3

84

38

P

22

2

8

2

36

20

5

3

71

27

TR

8

2

4

7

0

2

1

0

13

11

RTT

5

2

2

7

0

2

0

0

7

11

SL

3

0

2

0

0

0

1

0

6

0

R Rate

0.035

0.035

0.043

0.299

0.000

1.515

0.020

0

0.034

0.102

RV&EM

TE

7,288

1,299

466

73

67

15

937

183

8,758

1,570

R+P

7

2

2

1

5

4

0

0

14

7

P

7

2

0

0

4

3

0

0

11

5

TR

0

0

2

1

1

1

0

0

3

2

RTT

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

2

2

SL

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

R Rate

0

0

0.429

1.370

1.493

6.667

0

0

0.034

0.127

RVC/D

TE

2,252

630

67

22

24

9

214

71

2,557

732

R+P

0

1

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

3

P

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

TR

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

2

RTT

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

2

SL

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R Rate

0

0.159

0

0

0

11.111

0

0

0

0.273

CDL/N-RV

TE

1,125

129

74

5

12

2

132

22

1,343

158

R+P

2

1

0

0

4

0

0

0

6

1

P

2

1

0

0

4

0

0

0

6

1

TR

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

RTT

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

SL

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R Rate

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

ASP

TE

759

133

55

9

0

0

285

157

1,099

299

R+P

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

P

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

TR

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

RTT

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

SL

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R Rate

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

RVO = Revenue Vehicle Operation RV&EM = Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

 

 

 

 

 

RVC/D = Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching CDL/N-RV = CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle ASP = Armed Security Personnel

TE = testing events P = positives R = refusals TR = total refusals R Rate = refusal rate

RTT = refusal to take test SB = shy bladder Adul = adulterated Sub = substituted

 

4.2.2 Data for Four Test Types by Employee Category and Employer Size

 

The following series of graphs subdivide the test type/employee category rates by employer size. Two graphs, one for drugs and one for alcohol, are presented for the four test types combined and for each test type. This series of graphs is followed by two tables that provide the statistical basis for the rates.

These graphs do not contain columns for employee categories that show a rate of "0" in the test type/employee category graphs on page 4-8.

 

 

 

Two of the rates in the next drug graph are presented on a separate scale because their sample sizes are too small to be representative of their populations.

 

 


 

Two of the rates in the next drug graph and two of the rates in the next alcohol graph are presented on a separate scale because their sample sizes are too small to be representative of their populations.

 


Tests, Positives, and Refusals by Test Type, Employee Category, and Employer Size


 

Drugs

Random

Post-Accident

Reasonable Suspicion

Pre-Employment

Total

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

RVO

TE

71,813

6,542

14,141

10,811

995

977

444

38

37

40,734

4,150

10,052

123,802

11,725

25,207

R+P

741

71

120

178

13

12

34

5

10

1,145

108

160

2,098

197

302

P

680

60

103

162

11

12

32

5

9

1,086

99

154

1,960

175

278

TR

61

11

17

16

2

0

2

0

1

59

9

6

138

22

24

RTT

35

5

15

12

2

0

1

0

1

39

5

3

87

12

19

SB

14

6

2

2

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

18

7

3

Adul

10

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

13

0

0

23

0

0

Sub

2

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

6

3

2

10

3

2

R Rate

0.085

0.168

0.120

0.148

0.201

0

0.450

0

2.703

0.145

0.217

0.060

0.111

0.188

0.095

RV&

EM

TE

25,194

1,079

1,329

515

96

19

79

4

6

5,517

340

414

31,305

1,519

1,768

R+P

241

11

14

13

2

0

7

0

3

120

1

6

381

14

23

P

218

10

12

11

2

0

7

0

2

115

1

6

351

13

20

TR

23

1

2

2

0

0

0

0

1

5

0

0

30

1

3

RTT

17

1

1

2

0

0

0

0

1

4

0

0

23

1

2

SB

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

3

0

0

Adul

2

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

1

Sub

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

R Rate

0.091

0.093

0.150

0.388

0

0

0

0

16.667

0.091

0

0

0.096

0.066

0.170

RVC

/D

TE

6,733

824

1,958

95

3

9

25

1

2

1,552

130

515

8,405

958

2,484

R+P

44

7

7

0

0

0

0

0

1

50

2

5

94

9

13

P

37

6

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

46

2

5

83

8

12

TR

7

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

4

0

0

11

1

1

RTT

4

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

3

0

0

7

1

1

SB

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

Adul

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

3

0

0

Sub

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R Rate

0.104

0.121

0

0

0

0

0

0

50.00

0.258

0

0

0.131

0.104

0.040

CDL/N-RV

TE

2,539

82

568

74

4

13

10

0

10

592

56

255

3,215

142

846

R+P

28

0

6

5

0

1

0

0

0

22

0

6

55

0

13

P

27

0

5

5

0

1

0

0

0

19

0

5

51

0

11

TR

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

1

4

0

2

RTT

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

1

2

0

1

SB

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

Adul

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

Sub

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R Rate

0.039

0

0.176

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.507

0.000

0.392

0.124

0

0.236

ASP

TE

2,456

29

10

97

6

1

1

0

0

1,465

2

0

4,019

37

11

R+P

9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

26

0

0

35

0

0

P

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

24

0

0

29

0

0

TR

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

6

0

0

RTT

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

6

0

0

SB

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Adul

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Sub

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R Rate

0.163

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.137

0

0

0.149

0

0

RVO = Revenue Vehicle Operation RV&EM = Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

 

 

 

 

 

RVC/D = Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching CDL/N-RV = CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle ASP = Armed Security Personnel

TE = testing events P = positives R = refusals TR = total refusals R Rate = refusal rate

RTT = refusal to take test SB = shy bladder Adul = adulterated Sub = substituted

 

Tests, Positives, and Refusals by Test Type, Employee Category, and Employer Size

 

Alcohol

Random

Post-Accident

Reasonable Suspicion

Pre-Employment

Total

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

Large

Small

Rural

RVO

TE

22,878

1,916

3,908

10,194

822

703

422

35

34

6,487

394

790

39,981

3,167

5,435

R+P

22

4

8

20

0

1

48

5

5

8

0

1

98

9

15

P

17

4

3

10

0

0

46

5

5

7

0

1

80

9

9

TR

5

0

5

10

0

1

2

0

0

1

0

0

18

0

6

RTT

3

0

4

9

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

14

0

4

SL

2

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

4

0

2

R Rate

0.022

0

0.128

0.098

0

0.142

0.474

0

0

0.015

0

0

0.045

0

0.110

RV&

EM

TE

7,861

325

401

452

71

16

73

4

5

1,028

45

47

9,414

445

469

R+P

8

0

1

3

0

0

6

1

2

0

0

0

17

1

3

P

8

0

1

0

0

0

5

1

1

0

0

0

13

1

2

TR

0

0

0

3

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

4

0

1

RTT

0

0

0

2

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

3

0

1

SL

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

R Rate

0

0

0

0.664

0

0

1.370

0

20.00

0

0

0

0.042

0.000

0.213

RVC

/D

TE

2,023

251

608

76

3

10

30

1

2

215

13

57

2,344

268

677

R+P

1

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

P

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

TR

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

RTT

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

SL

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R Rate

0.049

0

0

0

0

0

3.333

0

0

0

0

0

0.085

0

0

CDL

/N-

RV

TE

1,054

30

170

67

3

9

13

0

1

118

4

32

1,252

37

212

R+P

3

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

7

0

0

P

3

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

7

0

0

TR

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

RTT

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

SL

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R Rate

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

ASP

TE

883

8

1

64

0

0

0

0

0

442

0

0

1,389

8

1

R+P

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

P

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

TR

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

RTT

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

SL

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R Rate

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

RVO = Revenue Vehicle Operation RV&EM = Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

 

 

 

 

 

RVC/D = Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatching CDL/N-RV = CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle ASP = Armed Security Personnel

TE = testing events P = positives R = refusals TR = total refusals R Rate = refusal rate

RTT = refusal to take test SB = shy bladder Adul = adulterated Sub = substituted

4.3 Data for Four Test Types by FTA Region

 

The drug rates and alcohol rates for all four test types combined and random tests are shown by FTA region on the next four maps. The shading variations provide quick comparison. The exact rates are also included. The statistical basis for the rates is provided in the accompanying tables. The rates for post-accident, reasonable suspicion, and pre-employment tests appear in tables following the maps, along with the statistical basis for those rates. Data on the individual types of refusals follow the other data tables. The data by region are subdivided by employer type and employer size in Sections 4.3.1 and 4.3.2, respectively.

 

Drug Rates for Four Test Types Combined by FTA Region

 

Total Drug Tests, Positives, and Refusals for Four Test Types by Region

Region

Events

Positives

Refusals

1

9,558

111

3

2

42,337

490

22

3

24,705

417

40

4

26,239

354

41

5

32,467

517

28

6

17,408

215

17

7

7,792

86

9

8

7,160

127

12

9

37,172

560

59

10

10,605

114

12

 

 

Alcohol Rates for Four Test Types Combined by FTA Region

 

Total Alcohol Tests, Positives, and Refusals for Four Test Types by Region

Region

Events

Positives

Refusals

1

2,006

6

1

2

13,239

7

5

3

9,498

24

1

4

8,868

16

2

5

8,870

21

9

6

7,019

11

4

7

1,451

7

3

8

1,445

2

0

9

9,547

19

4

10

3,156

10

2

 

 

Random Drug Rates by FTA Region

 

Random Drug Tests, Positives, and Refusals by FTA Region

Region

Events

Positives

Refusals

1

6,251

48

2

2

28,458

164

15

3

15,367

136

23

4

15,488

161

21

5

20,856

222

12

6

10,883

96

6

7

4,574

35

4

8

4,169

49

10

9

22,279

206

27

10

6,972

53

9

Events = testing events

 

Random Alcohol Rates by FTA Region

 

 

 

Random Alcohol Tests, Positives, and Refusals by FTA Region

Region

Testing Events

Positives

Refusals

1

1,342

1

0

2

9,182

4

2

3

5,962

8

0

4

5,332

5

1

5

5,711

6

3

6

4,870

6

0

7

1,118

2

3

8

1,061

0

0

9

5,186

2

1

10

2,553

3

1

 

Post-Accident Data by FTA Region

Drugs

Alcohol

Region

Testing Events

Positives

Refusals

Rate

Testing Events

Positives

Refusals

Rate

1

435

7

1

1.84

396

0

1

0.25

2

1,930

20

2

1.14

1,840

1

3

0.22

3

1,153

32

1

2.86

1,022

0

0

0

4

2,501

28

1

1.16

2,223

2

1

0.13

5

2,489

40

8

1.93

2,362

1

6

0.30

6

1,296

13

2

1.16

1,103

0

1

0.09

7

351

6

0

1.71

299

2

0

0.67

8

338

11

0

3.25

276

1

0

0.36

9

2,693

45

5

1.86

2,470

3

1

0.16

10

529

2

0

0.38

499

0

1

0.20

Reasonable Suspicion Data

by FTA Region

Drugs

Region

Testing Events

Positives

Refusals

Rate

1

22

1

0

4.55

2

224

10

0

4.46

3

98

10

0

10.20

4

43

6

0

13.95

5

108

8

1

8.33

6

25

3

2

20.00

7

15

2

2

26.67

8

18

2

0

11.11

9

79

10

0

12.66

10

25

3

0

12.00

Alcohol

Region

Testing Events

Positives

Refusals

Rate

1

13

5

0

38.46

2

207

2

0

0.97

3

86

12

0

13.95

4

39

8

0

20.51

5

106

13

0

12.26

6

25

3

3

24.00

7

12

3

0

25.00

8

24

1

0

4.17

9

80

14

2

20.00

10

28

7

0

25.00

 

 

Pre-Employment Data by FTA Region

Drugs

Alcohol

Region

Testing Events

Positives

Refusals

Rate

Testing Events

Positives

Refusals

Rate

1

2,850

55

0

1.93

255

0

0

0

2

11,725

296

5

2.57

2,010

0

0

0

3

8,087

239

16

3.15

2,428

4

1

0.21

4

8,207

159

19

2.17

1,274

1

0

0.08

5

9,014

247

7

2.82

691

1

0

0.14

6

5,204

103

7

2.11

1,021

2

0

0.20

7

2,852

43

3

1.61

22

0

0

0

8

2,635

65

2

2.54

84

0

0

0

9

12,121

299

27

2.69

1,811

0

0

0

10

3,079

56

3

1.92

76

0

0

0

 

The total number of refusals by FTA Region listed in each of the preceding tables is subdivided by the individual types of refusals in the following table.

 

Data on Refusal Types for Four Test Types by FTA Region

Drugs

Alcohol

Random

Post-Accident

Reasonable

Suspicion

Pre-Employment

Total

Random

Post-Accident

RS

P-E

Total

Region

RTT

SB

Adul

Sub

RTT

SB

Adul

Sub

RTT

SB

Adul

Sub

RTT

SB

Adul

Sub

RTT

SB

Adul

Sub

RTT

SL

RTT

SL

RTT

SL

RTT

SL

RTT

SL

1

2

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

2

6

4

4

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

1

1

11

4

5

2

2

0

2

1

0

0

0

0

4

1

3

17

4

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

16

0

0

0

34

4

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

4

10

10

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

2

1

2

25

12

1

3

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

5

9

1

1

1

7

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

5

17

2

2

7

1

2

5

1

0

0

0

0

6

3

6

6

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

2

0

0

0

5

0

0

2

13

1

0

3

0

0

1

0

3

0

0

0

4

0

7

3

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

8

1

0

0

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

1

8

8

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

9

2

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

9

14

4

9

0

4

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

1

12

0

32

6

21

0

1

0

1

0

2

0

0

0

4

0

10

8

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

1

0

0

10

2

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

RTT = refusal to take test SB = shy bladder SL = shy lung Adul = adulterated Sub = substituted

RS= Reasonable Suspicion P-E - Pre-Employment

4.3.1 Data for Test Types by FTA Region and Employer Type

 

The drug rates and the alcohol rates by region for all four test types combined and for random tests are subdivided by employer type in the next four maps. The statistical basis for the rates for all four test types combined is provided in the table following the first pair of maps. The statistical basis for the random rates is provided in the table following the second pair of maps. That table is followed by three tables containing the rates by region and employer type for post-accident, reasonable suspicion, and pre-employment tests, respectively, along with the statistical basis for those rates. Data on the individual types of refusals follow the other data tables.

 

Drug Rates for Four Test Types Combined by FTA Region and Employer Type

 

T = transit C = contractor

 

 


Alcohol Rates for Four Test Types Combined by FTA Region and Employer Type

 

T = transit C = contractor

Total Tests, Positives, and Refusals for Four Test Types by FTA Region and Employer Type

Drugs

Alcohol

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Region

Testing Events

Positives

Refusals

Tests

Positives

Refusals

Testing Events

Positives

Refusals

Tests

Positives

Refusals

1

7,389

90

1

2,169

21

2

1,482

5

0

524

1

1

2

31,523

238

15

10,814

252

7

10,173

5

2

3,066

2

3

3

17,744

187

19

6,961

230

21

7,228

19

1

2,270

5

0

4

20,444

221

22

5,795

133

19

7,706

13

1

1,162

3

1

5

24,687

274

17

7,780

243

11

7,189

12

5

1,681

9

4

6

13,265

133

10

4,143

82

7

5,965

10

1

1,054

1

3

7

7,052

64

5

740

22

4

1,336

7

3

115

0

0

8

4,385

51

6

2,775

76

6

944

1

0

501

1

0

9

23,045

249

17

14,127

311

42

6,935

12

1

2,612

7

3

10

7,541

62

4

3,064

52

8

2,638

5

2

518

5

0

 

Random Drug Rates by FTA Region and Employer Type

 

T = transit C = contractor

Random Alcohol Rates by FTA Region and Employer Type

 

T = transit C = contractor

 

Random Tests, Positives, and Refusals by FTA Region and Employer Type

Drugs

Alcohol

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Region

Testing Events

Positives

Refusals

Testing Events

Positives

Refusals

Testing Events

Positives

Refusals

Testing Events

Positives

Refusals

1

5,114

41

1

1,137

7

1

1,069

1

0

273

0

0

2

22,900

90

11

5,558

74

4

7,463

3

1

1,719

1

1

3

12,943

97

14

2,424

39

9

5,082

7

0

880

1

0

4

12,944

121

13

2,544

40

8

4,538

4

1

794

1

0

5

17,225

146

9

3,631

76

3

4,583

4

2

1,128

2

1

6

8,801

69

4

2,082

27

2

4,213

6

0

657

0

0

7

4,260

30

3

314

5

1

1,015

2

3

103

0

0

8

2,939

20

5

1,230

29

5

688

0

0

373

0

0

9

15,616

117

12

6,663

89

15

3,611

2

0

1,575

0

1

10

5,497

40

4

1,475

13

5

2,184

3

1

369

0

0

 

Post-Accident Data by FTA Region and Employer Type

Drugs

Alcohol

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Region

TE

P

R

Rate

TE

P

R

Rate

TE

P

R

Rate

TE

P

R

Rate

1

344

5

0

1.45

91

2

1

3.30

316

0

0

0

80

0

1

1.25

2

1,434

9

1

0.70

496

11

1

2.42

1,392

1

1

0.14

448

0

2

0.45

3

882

13

0

1.47

271

19

1

7.38

820

0

0

0

202

0

0

0.00

4

2,183

19

0

0.87

318

9

1

3.14

1,973

1

0

0.05

250

1

1

0.80

5

2,124

29

4

1.55

365

11

4

4.11

2,043

1

3

0.20

319

0

3

0.94

6

1,035

8

2

0.97

261

5

0

1.92

910

0

0

0

193

0

1

0.52

7

339

6

0

1.77

12

0

0

0

290

2

0

0.69

9

0

0

0

8

217

5

0

2.30

121

6

0

4.96

170

1

0

0.59

106

0

0

0

9

1,764

20

1

1.19

929

25

4

3.12

1,716

2

1

0.17

754

1

0

0.13

10

431

1

0

0.23

98

1

0

1.02

408

0

1

0.25

91

0

0

0

TE = testing events P = positives R = refusals

 

Reasonable Suspicion Data by FTA Region and Employer Type

Drugs

Alcohol

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Region

TE

P

R

Rate

TE

P

R

Rate

TE

P

R

Rate

TE

P

R

Rate

1

17

1

0

5.88

5

0

0

0

9

4

0

44.44

4

1

0

25.00

2

192

6

0

3.13

32

4

0

12.50

181

1

0

0.55

26

1

0

3.85

3

69

3

0

4.35

29

7

0

24.14

65

10

0

15.38

21

2

0

9.52

4

31

4

0

12.90

12

2

0

16.67

34

7

0

20.59

5

1

0

20.00

5

85

4

1

5.88

23

4

0

17.39

77

7

0

9.09

29

6

0

20.69

6

17

2

1

17.65

8

1

1

25.00

17

2

1

17.65

8

1

2

37.50

7

14

1

2

21.43

1

1

0

100.00

12

3

0

25.00

0

0

0

0

8

8

0

0

0

10

2

0

20.00

10

0

0

0

14

1

0

7.14

9

42

6

0

14.29

37

4

0

10.81

44

8

0

18.18

36

6

2

22.22

10

11

1

0

9.09

14

2

0

14.29

13

2

0

15.38

15

5

0

33.33

TE = testing events P = positives R = refusals

Pre-Employment Data by FTA Region and Employer Type

Drugs

Alcohol

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Region

Tests

P

R

Rate

Tests

P

R

Rate

Tests

P

R

Rate

Tests

P

R

Rate

1

1,914

43

0

2.25

936

12

0

1.28

88

0

0

0.00

167

0

0

0

2

6,997

133

3

1.94

4,728

163

2

3.49

1,137

0

0

0.00

873

0

0

0

3

3,850

74

5

2.05

4,237

165

11

4.15

1,261

2

1

0.24

1,167

2

0

0.17

4

5,286

77

9

1.63

2,921

82

10

3.15

1,161

1

0

0.09

113

0

0

0

5

5,253

95

3

1.87

3,761

152

4

4.15

486

0

0

0.00

205

1

0

0.49

6

3,412

54

3

1.67

1,792

49

4

2.96

825

2

0

0.24

196

0

0

0

7

2,439

27

0

1.11

413

16

3

4.60

19

0

0

0.00

3

0

0

0

8

1,221

26

1

2.21

1,414

39

1

2.83

76

0

0

0.00

8

0

0

0

9

5,623

106

4

1.96

6,498

193

23

3.32

1,564

0

0

0.00

247

0

0

0

10

1,602

20

0

1.25

1,477

36

3

2.64

33

0

0

0.00

43

0

0

0

TE = testing events P = positives R = refusals

 

 

Data on Refusal Types for Four Test Types by FTA Region and Employer Type

Drugs

Random

Post-Accident

Reasonable Suspicion

Pre-Employment

Total

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Region

RT

SB

A

S

RT

SB

A

S

RT

SB

A

S

RT

SB

A

S

RT

SB

A

S

RT

SB

A

S

RT

SB

A

S

RT

SB

A

S

RT

SB

A

S

RT

SB

A

S

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

2

4

4

2

1

2

0

2

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

7

4

3

1

4

0

2

1

3

9

3

1

1

8

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

0

0

0

11

0

0

0

14

3

1

1

20

1

0

0

4

7

5

0

1

3

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

1

1

1

8

1

0

1

13

6

1

2

12

6

0

1

5

6

1

1

1

3

0

0

0

3

0

0

1

4

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

1

0

0

3

9

2

2

4

8

0

0

3

6

4

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

2

0

0

2

8

1

0

1

5

0

0

2

7

2

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

4

1

0

0

4

0

0

0

8

3

2

0

0

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

3

2

0

1

6

0

0

0

9

8

2

2

0

6

2

7

0

1

0

0

0

3

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

1

0

11

1

11

0

12

2

3

0

20

4

18

0

10

3

1

0

0

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

1

0

0

3

1

0

0

7

1

0

0

RT = refusal to take test SB = shy bladder A = adulterated S = substituted

 

Data on Refusal Types for Four Test Types by FTA Region and Employer Type

Alcohol

Random

Post-Accident

Reasonable Suspicion

Pre-Employment

Total

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Transit

Contractor

Region

RTT

SL

RTT

SL

RTT

SL

RTT

SL

RTT

SL

RTT

SL

RTT

SL

RTT

SL

RTT

SL

RTT

SL

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

2

1

0

1

0

0

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

3

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

4

1

0