Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2004 Annual Report

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Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2004 Annual Report




Table of Contents

1. Testing Requirements

2. Random Drug and Alcohol Rates

3. Drug Test Results

4. Alcohol Test Results

Appendix A. MIS Data Collection Form

Appendix B. Contact Information

Appendix C. Glossary of Terms


List of Figures


List of Tables


1. Testing Requirements

1.1 Required Testing Program

Safety-sensitive employees must undergo testing for five illegal substances with the use of six different test types. Employees who perform safety-sensitive functions must also be tested for alcohol use in each of those test types, except for pre-employment testing. Employers are required to conduct four types of tests of employees who perform safety-sensitive functions, and are permitted to conduct two other types of tests for drugs and alcohol (return-to-duty and follow-up).

Table 1 lists the employee categories, test types, and drug types that fall under the auspices of the FTA Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. For more detailed descriptions of each of these categories, refer to the glossary in Appendix C. You may also refer to FTA and DOT drug and alcohol regulations on the FTA Office of Safety and Security Web site at: http://transit-safety.volpe.dot.gov/Safety/datesting/regulations/default.asp. For additional guidance, another excellent source is the Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance (ODAPC) Web site: http://www.dot.gov/ost/dapc/index.html.

Table 1. Safety-Sensitive Employee Categories, Test Types, and Drug Types
Safety-Sensitive Employee Categories

Revenue vehicle operation
Revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance
Revenue vehicle control/Dispatch
CDL/Non-revenue vehicle
Armed security personnel
Test Types

Pre-Employment
Random
Post-Accident
Reasonable Suspicion
Return-to-Duty
Follow-Up
Drug Types

Marijuana
Cocaine
Phencyclidine (PCP)
Opiates
Amphetamines


1.2 Regions Required to Test

The FTA is comprised of 10 regions, which are identified in Figure 1. The data provided by these regions have facilitated the comparison of drug and alcohol test results and the identification of regional trends. Table 2 lists the states and territories in each FTA region.



Figure 1. The 10 FTA Regions Required to Test for Drugs and Alcohol

Table 2. U.S. States and Territories by Region
Region States
1 Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont
2 New Jersey, New York, U.S. Virgin Islands
3 Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia
4 Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Puerto Rico
5 Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin
6 Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas
7 Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska
8 Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming
9 American Samoa, Arizona, California, Guam, Hawaii, Nevada, Northern Mariana Islands
10 Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

1.3 Covered Employees and Employers

A covered employee is any person, including an applicant, transferee, or volunteer who performs or will perform a safety-sensitive function for an entity subject to 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 655. A covered employer is a recipient or other entity that provides a mass transportation service or performs a safety-sensitive function for such recipient or other entity. This includes Section 5311 State Nonurban subrecipients, Section 5307 Urbanized Area Formula grantees, Section 5309 Major Capital Investment recipients, and contractors. Table 3 provides a list of the number of covered employees and employers in each FTA region.

Table 3. Number of Covered Employees and Employers by Region
Region Number of Covered Employees Number of Covered Employers
1 12,794 194
2 53,651 225
3 29,884 181
4 30,487 552
5 39,163 625
6 19,006 242
7 9,197 339
8 8,381 171
9 44,221 390
10 14,452 217
Total 261,236 3,136


1.4 Percent Positive for Drugs and Alcohol

When testing for drugs, the term "percent positive" refers to the number of verified positive results plus the number of refusal results divided by the number of test results. For alcohol tests, percent positive is the number of confirmation tests with results of 0.04 or greater plus the number of refusal results divided by the number of screening test results.

2. Random Drug and Alcohol Rates

2.1 Official Random Rates for 2004

Figures 2 and 3 show the official rates for random drug and alcohol tests used by the FTA Administrator in determining the random rates for 2005. Figure 2 shows the positive rate for random drug tests over the last 10 years (1995 to 2004). Figure 3 shows the violation rate for random alcohol tests over the same 10-year span.

2.2 Calculating Positive Rates and Violation Rates

The positive rate for drugs is calculated by taking the total number of verified positive tests; adding to that the total number of adulterated samples plus total number of substituted specimens, shy bladder instances (those without medical explanation), and other refusals; and dividing that number by the total number of drug test results. The violation rate for alcohol is calculated by taking the total number of confirmative test results greater than or equal to a breath alcohol level of 0.04, adding the total number of shy lung instances (those without medical explanation) plus the total number of other refusals, and dividing that number by the total number of screens conducted.


Figure 2. Positive Rate for Random Drug Tests (1995 to 2004)



Figure 3. Violation Rate for Random Alcohol Tests (1995 to 2004)


2.3 Official Positive Rate and Violation Rate Trends

As shown in Figure 4, the official positive rate dropped in 2004 to the lowest rate (0.89 percent) in the last three years. This drop is nearly 50 percent lower than the random positive rate recorded in 1995. The violation rate remained at a static level (0.11 percent) in 2004, lower than in all of the preceding years.


Figure 4. Official Positive Rates and Violation Rates: 1995 to 2005


3. Drug Test Results

3.1 Drug Test Results by Test Type

3.1.1 Pre-Employment Drug Test Results

Table 4 provides results of pre-employment drug tests for all employee categories. Figure 5 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all pre-employment drug tests.

Table 4. Pre-Employment Drug Test Results by Employee Categories
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 60,377 58,888 1,404 943 396 16 37 63 8 4 11 62 123
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 6,615 6,427 161 107 36 3 2 14 4 2 0 21 10
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 2,254 2,205 44 37 4 0 2 3 0 0 0 5 15
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 1,360 1,326 33 24 6 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 5
Armed Security Personnel 1,204 1,189 12 8 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
TOTAL 71,810 70,035 1,654 1,119 446 19 42 82 12 6 11 92 153



Figure 5. Percent Positive for Pre-Employment Drug Tests by Employee Category


3.1.2 Random Drug Test Results

Table 5 provides results of random drug tests for all employee categories. Figure 6 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all random drug tests.

Table 5. Random Drug Test Results by Employee Categories
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 96,734 95,858 776 387 300 2 29 79 9 6 17 68 185
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 28,638 28,370 262 140 101 6 4 17 1 4 1 10 32
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 9,806 9,759 38 25 13 1 3 1 0 0 0 9 14
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 3,415 3,374 37 24 11 0 3 0 0 1 2 1 5
Armed Security Personnel 2425 2414 9 8 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 2
TOTAL 14,1018 139,775 1,122 584 427 9 40 97 10 11 20 90 238



Figure 6. Percent Positive for Random Drug Tests by Employee Category


3.1.3 Post-Accident Drug Test Results

Table 6 provides results of post-accident drug tests for all employee categories. Figure 7 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all post-accident drug tests.

Table 6. Post-Accident Drug Test Results by Employee Categories
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 13,526 13,319 194 84 88 1 11 14 0 1 4 8 23
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 648 643 5 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 122 121 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 127 120 7 4 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 87 86 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 14,510 14,289 207 90 94 1 11 16 1 1 4 8 23



Figure 7. Percent Positive for Post-Accident Drug Tests by Employee Category


3.1.4 Reasonable Suspicion Drug Test Results

Table 7 provides results of reasonable suspicion drug tests for all employee categories. Figure 8 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all reasonable suspicion drug tests.

Table 7. Reasonable Suspicion Drug Test Results by Employee Categories
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 484 442 33 7 20 0 4 2 0 2 1 6 1
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 97 84 12 6 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 29 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 9 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 624 567 46 14 25 0 4 3 0 2 1 8 2



Figure 8. Percent Positive for Reasonable Suspicion Drug Tests by Employee Category


3.1.5 Return-to-Duty Drug Test Results

Table 8 provides results of return-to-duty drug tests for all employee categories. Figure 9 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all return-to-duty drug tests.

Table 8. Return-to-Duty Drug Test Results for All Employee Categories
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 1,119 1,094 25 13 10 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 202 197 5 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 36 35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 26 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 1,392 1,361 30 17 11 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 1



Figure 9. Percent Positive for Return-to-Duty Drug Tests by Employee Category


3.1.6 Follow-Up Drug Test Results

Table 9 provides results of follow-up drug tests for all employee categories. Figure 10 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all follow-up drug tests.

Table 9. Follow-Up Drug Test Results for All Employee Categories
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 5,173 5,085 82 35 43 1 0 5 1 0 2 3 12
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 2,063 2,028 29 8 17 0 0 4 0 0 3 3 6
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 221 214 6 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 253 250 3 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Armed Security Personnel 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 7,712 7,579 120 48 65 1 0 9 1 0 5 7 20



Figure 10. Percent Positive for Follow-Up Drug Tests by Employee Category


3.1.7 Drug Test Results by Test Type for All Employee Categories

Table 10 provides drug test results by test type for all employee categories. Figure 11 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type.

Table 10. Drug Test Results by Test Type for All Employee Categories
Test Type Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 71,810 70,035 1,654 1,119 446 19 42 82 12 6 11 92 153
Random 141,028 139,775 1,122 584 427 9 40 97 10 11 20 90 238
Post-Accident 14,510 14,289 207 90 94 1 11 16 1 1 4 8 23
Reas. Suspicion 624 567 46 14 25 0 4 3 0 2 1 8 2
Return-to-Duty 1,392 1,361 30 17 11 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 1
Follow-Up 7,712 7,579 120 48 65 1 0 9 1 0 5 7 20
TOTAL 237,076 233,606 3,179 1,872 1,068 30 98 209 24 20 41 206 437



Figure 11. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type


3.2 Drug Test Results by Employee Category

3.2.1 Revenue Vehicle Operation

Table 11 provides drug test results for the revenue vehicle operation employee category. Figure 12 illustrates the percent positive for each test type under the revenue vehicle operation employee category.

Table 11. Drug Test Results for Revenue Vehicle Operation
Test Type Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 60,377 58,888 1,404 943 396 16 37 63 8 4 11 62 246
Random 96,734 95,858 776 387 300 2 29 79 9 6 17 68 370
Post-Accident 13,526 13,319 194 84 88 1 11 14 0 1 4 8 46
Reas. Suspicion 484 442 33 7 20 0 4 2 0 2 1 6 2
Return-to-Duty 1,119 1,094 25 13 10 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 2
Follow-Up 5,173 5,085 82 35 43 1 0 5 1 0 2 3 24
TOTAL 177,413 174,686 2,514 1,469 857 20 82 165 18 13 35 147 690



Figure 12. Percent Positive for Revenue Vehicle Operation by Test Type


3.2.2 Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

Table 12 provides drug test results for the revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance employee category by test type. Figure 13 illustrates the percent positive for the revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance employee category by test type.

Table 12. Drug Test Results for Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance
Test Type Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 6,615 6,427 161 107 36 3 2 14 4 2 0 21 20
Random 28,648 28,370 262 140 101 6 4 17 1 4 1 10 64
Post-Accident 648 643 5 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 97 84 12 6 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
Return-to-Duty 202 197 5 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 2,063 2,028 29 8 17 0 0 4 0 0 3 3 12
TOTAL 38,273 37,749 474 267 162 9 6 37 5 6 4 35 96



Figure 13. Percent Positive for Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance by Test Type


3.2.3 Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch

Table 13 provides drug test results for the revenue vehicle control/dispatch employee category by test type. Figure 14 illustrates the percent positive for the revenue vehicle control/dispatch employee category by test type.

Table 13. Drug Test Results for Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch
Test Type Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 2,254 2,205 44 37 4 0 2 3 0 0 0 5 30
Random 9,806 9,759 38 25 13 1 3 1 0 0 0 9 28
Post-Accident 122 121 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 29 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Return-to-Duty 36 35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Follow-Up 221 214 6 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
TOTAL 12,468 12,362 89 66 21 1 5 4 0 0 0 17 60



Figure 14. Percent Positive for Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch by Test Type


3.2.4 Commercial Driver's License (CDL)/Non-Revenue Vehicle

Table 14 provides drug test results for the commercial driver's license (CDL)/non-revenue vehicle employee category by test type. Figure 15 illustrates the percent positive for the CDL/non-revenue vehicle employee category by test type.

Table 14. Drug Test Results for Commercial Driver's License (CDL)/Non-Revenue Vehicle
Test Type Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 1,360 1,326 33 24 6 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 10
Random 3,415 3,375 37 24 11 0 3 0 0 1 2 1 10
Post-Accident 127 120 7 4 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 9 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 26 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 253 250 3 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
TOTAL 5,190 5,105 81 54 22 0 4 3 0 1 2 2 24



Figure 15. Percent Positive for Commercial Driver's License (CDL)/Non-Revenue Vehicle by Test Type


3.2.5 Armed Security Personnel

Table 15 provides drug test results for the armed security personnel employee category by test type. Figure 16 illustrates the percent positive for the armed security personnel employee category by test type.

Table 15. Drug Test Results for Armed Security Personnel
Test Type Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 1,204 1,189 12 8 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
Random 2,425 2,414 9 8 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 4
Post-Accident 87 86 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 3,732 3,705 21 16 6 0 1 0 1 0 0 5 4



Figure 16. Percent Positive for Armed Security Personnel by Test Type


3.2.6 Drug Test Results for All Employee Categories

Table 16 provides drug test results for all test types by employee category. Figure 17 illustrates the percent positive for all test types by employee category.

Table 16. Drug Test Results for All Test Types by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 177,413 174,686 2,514 1,469 857 20 82 165 18 13 35 147 345
Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance 38,273 37,749 474 267 162 9 6 37 5 6 4 35 48
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 12,468 12,362 89 66 21 1 5 4 0 0 0 17 30
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 5,190 5,104 81 54 22 0 4 3 0 1 2 2 12
Armed Security Personnel 3,732 3,705 21 16 6 0 1 0 1 0 0 5 2
TOTAL 237,076 233,606 3,179 1,872 1,068 30 98 209 24 20 41 206 437



Figure 17. Percent Positive for All Test Types by Employee Category


3.3 Drug Test Results by Region

3.3.1 Drug Test Results for Region 1

Table 17 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 1. Figure 18 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 1.

Table 17. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 1

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 2,813 2,761 51 40 13 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 4
Random 6,626 6,586 38 19 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 7
Post-Accident 475 470 5 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Reas. Suspicion 14 12 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 40 38 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 209 205 4 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0



Figure 18. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 1


3.3.2 Drug Test Results for Region 2

Table 18 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 2. Figure 19 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 2.

Table 18. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 2

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 10,536 10,271 258 162 83 6 5 2 2 1 0 4 20
Random 28,414 28,207 191 84 92 8 5 6 1 4 2 9 34
Post-Accident 2,222 2,186 34 12 19 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 3
Reas. Suspicion 106 100 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 194 191 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Follow-up 1,874 1,858 12 5 8 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 7



Figure 19. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 2


3.3.3 Drug Test Results for Region 3

Table 19 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 3. Figure 20 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 3

Table 19. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 3

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 8,948 8,620 298 195 95 7 8 1 0 0 0 30 10
Random 16,090 16,740 150 72 67 1 13 1 0 0 3 16 31
Post-Accident 1,280 1,249 28 19 8 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 4
Reas. Suspicion 79 67 8 3 4 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 1
Return-to-Duty 215 211 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Follow-up 1,266 1,246 19 6 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2



Figure 20. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 3


3.3.4 Drug Test Results for Region 4

Table 20 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 4. Figure 21 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 4.

Table 20. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 4

Test Type
TOTAL Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 9,814 9,568 224 146 70 1 1 10 3 2 0 17 14
Random 16,534 16,377 141 72 65 0 6 4 2 2 2 10 28
Post-Accident 2,782 2,746 32 13 17 0 0 2 1 0 0 3 4
Reas. Suspicion 86 77 7 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Return-to-Duty 253 252 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 592 578 14 5 8 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3



Figure 21. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 4


3.3.5 Drug Test Results for Region 5

Table 21 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 5. Figure 22 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 5.

Table 21. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 5

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 10,017 9,767 231 158 71 2 9 3 3 1 8 7 9
Random 21,423 21,230 172 97 76 0 3 4 1 1 3 16 27
Post-Accident 2,493 2,445 46 12 30 0 3 2 0 0 2 0 4
Reas. Suspicion 121 112 7 2 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0
Return-to-Duty 232 223 9 4 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 1,325 1,294 27 12 13 0 0 3 0 0 2 2 6



Figure 22. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 5


3.3.6 Drug Test Results for Region 6

Table 22 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 6. Figure 23 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 6.

Table 22. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 6

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 5,210 5,088 113 84 28 1 1 2 1 1 0 7 13
Random 10,784 10,674 105 59 41 0 3 4 0 2 1 2 18
Post-Accident 1,247 1,233 14 7 5 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 38 34 4 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 94 92 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 205 197 8 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0



Figure 23. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 6


3.3.7 Drug Test Results for Region 7

Table 23 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 7. Figure 24 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 7.

Table 23. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 7

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 3,005 2,950 50 36 10 0 1 5 1 0 0 4 8
Random 4,717 4,675 38 23 10 0 1 6 1 0 2 1 14
Post-Accident 460 454 5 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 32 30 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 34 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 152 148 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0



Figure 24. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 7


3.3.8 Drug Test Results for Region 8

Table 24 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 8. Figure 25 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 8.

Table 24. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 8

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 2,949 2,890 56 37 11 0 3 6 0 0 1 2 9
Random 4,470 4,422 38 28 7 0 0 4 1 1 4 4 7
Post-Accident 297 287 10 8 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1
Reas. Suspicion 33 31 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 28 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 171 168 3 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0



Figure 25. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 8


3.3.9 Drug Test Results for Region 9

Table 25 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 9. Figure 26 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 9.

Table 25. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 9

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 15,262 14,923 321 218 63 1 12 45 2 1 2 13 55
Random 23,544 23,321 193 93 43 0 9 55 4 1 2 23 58
Post-Accident 2,736 2,704 30 14 9 0 1 8 0 0 1 1 2
Reas. Suspicion 87 77 9 2 5 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 1
Return-to-Duty 250 242 8 3 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 1,508 1,482 22 6 10 1 0 5 1 0 1 2 2



Figure 26. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 9


3.3.10 Drug Test Results for Region 10

Table 26 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 10. Figure 27 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 10.

Table 26. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 10

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 3,249 3,190 52 43 2 0 2 7 0 0 0 7 11
Random 7,596 7,533 55 37 7 0 0 12 0 0 1 7 14
Post-Accident 518 515 3 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3
Reas. Suspicion 28 27 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 52 50 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 410 403 7 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0



Figure 27. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 10


3.3.11 Drug Test Results for All Regions

Table 27 provides drug test results for all test types and drugs detected for each region. Figure 28 illustrates the percent positive for all test types by region.

Table 27. Drug Test Results for All Regions
Region Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
1 10,177 10,072 102 65 38 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 13
2 43,346 42,813 502 267 205 15 11 9 3 8 4 16 65
3 28,697 28,133 506 298 187 8 25 2 0 0 4 54 48
4 30,061 29,598 419 237 167 1 7 17 6 4 2 32 49
5 35,611 35,071 492 285 198 2 17 13 4 2 15 27 46
6 17,578 17,318 246 156 81 1 5 8 1 3 1 9 31
7 8,400 8,291 99 66 24 0 2 11 2 0 3 5 22
8 7,948 7,826 109 76 20 0 3 12 1 1 5 6 17
9 43,387 42,749 583 336 133 2 23 116 7 2 6 40 118
10 11,853 11,718 120 86 15 0 4 19 0 0 1 14 28
Total 237,058 233,589 3,178 1,872 1,068 30 98 208 24 20 41 206 437



Figure 28. Percent Positive for All Test Types by Region


3.3.12 Drug Test Results for Transit Employers and Contractors

Table 28 provides drug test results for transit employers by region. Figure 29 illustrates the percent positive for transit employers by region. Table 29 provides drug test results for contractors by region. Figure 30 illustrates the percent positive for contractors by region.

Table 28. Drug Test Results for Transit Employers by Region
Region Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
1 7,921 7,846 74 45 29 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 10
2 32,226 31,946 261 119 122 9 6 7 0 5 4 10 39
3 20,797 20,544 234 138 83 2 14 1 0 0 0 19 37
4 22,703 22,425 257 137 115 1 5 7 4 1 2 14 39
5 26,698 26,418 246 139 99 0 7 10 3 2 14 15 34
6 13,640 13,478 155 93 55 0 4 6 0 1 1 5 21
7 7,552 7,475 71 48 16 0 2 6 1 0 3 2 17
8 5,083 5,023 56 44 6 0 1 5 0 1 1 2 9
9 25,051 24,791 238 128 78 2 5 40 2 1 3 16 67
10 8,637 8,563 66 46 11 0 2 10 0 0 1 7 14
Total 170,308 168,509 1,658 937 614 15 47 93 10 11 29 91 287



Figure 29. Percent Positive for Transit Employers by Region


Table 29. Drug Test Results for Contractors by Region
Region Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
1 2,256 2,226 28 20 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3
2 11,120 10,867 241 148 83 6 5 2 3 3 0 6 26
3 7,900 7,589 272 160 104 6 11 1 0 0 4 35 11
4 7,358 7,173 162 100 52 0 2 10 2 3 0 18 10
5 8,913 8,653 246 146 99 2 10 3 1 0 1 12 12
6 3,938 3,840 91 63 26 1 1 2 1 2 0 4 10
7 848 816 28 18 8 0 0 5 1 0 0 3 5
8 2,865 2,803 53 32 14 0 2 7 1 0 4 4 8
9 18,336 17,958 345 208 55 0 18 76 5 1 3 24 51
10 3,216 3,155 54 40 4 0 2 9 0 0 0 7 14
Total 66,750 65,080 1,520 935 454 15 51 115 14 9 12 115 150



Figure 30. Percent Positive for Contractors by Region


4. Alcohol Test Results

4.1 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type and Employee Category

The following section provides alcohol test results by test type conducted and for each employee category.

4.1.1 Pre-Employment Alcohol Test Results

Table 30 provides alcohol results for pre-employment tests for each employee category. Figure 31 illustrates the percent positive for pre-employment tests by employee category.

Table 30. Pre-Employment Alcohol Test Results by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 8,640 8,623 16 16 3 10 0 1 1
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 1,022 1,021 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 327 327 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 169 169 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 237 234 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
TOTAL 10,395 10,374 16 16 3 10 1 4 1



Figure 31. Percent Positive for Pre-Employment Tests by Employee Category


4.1.2 Random Alcohol Test Results

Table 31 provides alcohol results for random tests for each employee category. Figure 32 illustrates the percent positive for random alcohol tests by employee category.

Table 31. Random Alcohol Test Results by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 29,265 29,197 61 44 21 18 2 5 27
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 9,075 9,032 40 33 14 16 1 1 3
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 3,079 3,067 8 3 1 1 1 3 1
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 1,204 1,203 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 844 842 1 1 0 0 0 1 0
TOTAL 43,467 43,341 111 81 36 35 4 10 31



Figure 32. Percent Positive for Random Tests by Employee Category


4.1.3 Post-Accident Alcohol Test Results

Table 32 provides alcohol results for post-accident tests for each employee category. Figure 33 illustrates the percent positive for post-accident tests by employee category.

Table 32. Post-Accident Alcohol Test Results by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 12,398 12,378 15 11 2 8 1 4 14
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 529 527 2 2 1 1 0 0 2
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 135 135 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 114 113 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 89 89 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 13,265 13,242 18 14 4 9 1 4 17


Figure 33. Percent Positive for Post-Accident Tests by Employee Category


4.1.4 Reasonable Suspicion Alcohol Test Results

Table 33 provides alcohol results for reasonable suspicion tests for each employee category. Figure 34 illustrates the percent positive for reasonable suspicion tests by employee category.

Table 33. Reasonable Suspicion Alcohol Test Results by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 471 373 90 74 26 43 2 6 0
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 94 76 14 12 1 11 0 4 1
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 28 20 7 6 3 2 0 1 1
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 11 7 4 4 0 4 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 2 0 2 2 1 1 0 0 0
TOTAL 606 476 117 98 31 61 2 11 2



Figure 34. Percent Positive for Reasonable Suspicion Tests by Employee Category


4.1.5 Return-to-Duty Alcohol Test Results

Table 34 provides alcohol results for return-to-duty tests for each employee category. Figure 35 illustrates the percent positive for return-to-duty tests by employee category.

Table 34. Return-to-Duty Alcohol Test Results by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 551 546 5 4 2 1 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 139 137 2 2 0 0 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 21 20 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 13 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 724 716 7 6 2 1 0 1 0



Figure 35. Percent Positive for Return-to-Duty Tests by Employee Category


4.1.6 Follow-Up Alcohol Test Results

Table 35 provides alcohol results for follow-up tests for each employee category. Figure 36 illustrates the percent positive for follow-up tests by employee category.

Table 35. Follow-Up Alcohol Test Results by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 3,704 3,650 54 8 2 5 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 1,725 1,716 9 8 3 4 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 178 177 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 130 128 2 2 1 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 5,737 5,671 65 18 6 9 0 1 0



Figure 36. Percent Positive for Follow-Up Tests by Employee Category


4.1.7 Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type

Table 36 provides alcohol results for all employee categories by test type. Figure 37 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type.

Table 36. Alcohol Test Results for All Test Types
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 10,395 10,374 16 16 3 10 1 4 1
Random 43,466 43,341 111 81 36 35 4 10 31
Post-Accident 13,265 13,242 18 14 4 9 1 4 17
Reas. Suspicion 606 476 117 98 31 61 2 11 2
Return-to-Duty 724 716 7 6 2 3 0 1 0
Follow-up 5,737 5,671 65 18 6 9 0 1 0
TOTAL 74,193 73,820 334 233 82 127 8 31 51



Figure 37. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type


4.2 Alcohol Results by Employee Category

The following section provides alcohol test results for each employee category by type of test conducted.

4.2.1 Revenue Vehicle Operation

Table 37 provides alcohol results for the revenue vehicle operation employee category by test type. Figure 38 illustrates the percent positive for the revenue vehicle operation employee category by test type.

Table 37. Alcohol Results for Revenue Vehicle Operation by Test Type
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 17,280 17,246 32 32 6 20 0 2 2
Random 58,530 58,394 122 88 42 36 4 10 54
Post-Accident 24,796 24,756 30 22 4 16 2 8 28
Reas. Suspicion 942 746 180 148 52 86 4 12 0
Return-to-Duty 1,102 1,092 10 8 4 2 0 0 0
Follow-Up 7,408 7,300 108 16 4 10 0 0 0
TOTAL 110,058 109,534 482 314 112 170 10 32 84



Figure 38. Percent Positive for the Revenue Vehicle Operation Employee Category by Test Type


4.2.2 Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

Table 38 provides alcohol results for the revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance employee category by test type. Figure 39 illustrates the percent positive for the revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance employee category by test type.

Table 38. Alcohol Results for Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance by Test Type
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 2,044 2,042 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
Random 18,148 18,064 80 66 28 32 2 2 6
Post-Accident 1,058 1,054 4 4 2 2 0 0 4
Reas. Suspicion 188 152 28 24 2 22 0 8 2
Return-to-Duty 278 274 4 4 0 4 0 0 0
Follow-Up 3,450 3,432 18 16 6 8 0 0 0
TOTAL 25,166 25,018 134 114 38 68 4 10 12



Figure 39. Percent Positive for the Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance Employee Category by Test Type


4.2.3 Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch

Table 39 provides alcohol results for the revenue vehicle control/dispatch employee category by test type. Figure 40 illustrates the percent positive for the revenue vehicle control/dispatch employee category by test type.

Table 39. Alcohol Results for Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch by Test Type
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 654 654 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Random 6,158 6,134 16 6 2 2 2 6 2
Post-Accident 270 270 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Reas. Suspicion 56 40 14 12 6 4 0 2 2
Return-to-Duty 42 40 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Follow-Up 356 354 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
TOTAL 7,536 7,492 30 18 8 6 2 12 6



Figure 40. Percent Positive for the Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch Employee Category by Test Type


4.2.4 CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

Table 40 provides alcohol results for the CDL/non-revenue vehicle employee category by test type. Figure 41 illustrates the percent positive for the CDL/non-revenue vehicle employee category by test type.

Table 40. Alcohol Results for CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle by Test Type
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 338 338 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Random 2,408 2,406 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Post-Accident 228 226 2 2 2 0 0 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 22 14 8 8 0 8 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 26 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 260 256 4 4 2 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 3,282 3,266 16 14 4 8 0 0 0



Figure 41. Percent Positive for the CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle Employee Category by Test Type


4.2.5 Armed Security Personnel

Table 41 provides alcohol results for the armed security personnel employee category by test type. Figure 42 illustrates the percent positive for the armed security personnel employee category by test type.

Table 41. Alcohol Results for Armed Security Personnel by Test Type
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 474 468 0 0 0 0 0 6 0
Random 1,688 1,684 2 2 0 0 0 2 0
Post-Accident 178 178 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 4 0 4 4 2 2 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 2,344 2,330 6 6 2 2 0 8 0



Figure 42. Percent Positive for the Armed Security Personnel Employee Category by Test Type


4.2.6 Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type

Table 42 provides alcohol results for all employee categories by test type. Figure 43 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type.

Table 42. Alcohol Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 20,790 20,748 32 32 6 20 2 8 2
Random 86,932 86,682 222 162 72 70 8 20 62
Post-Accident 26,530 26,484 36 28 6 18 6 8 34
Reas. Suspicion 1,212 952 234 196 62 122 4 22 4
Return-to-Duty 1,448 1,432 14 12 4 6 0 2 0
Follow-Up 11,474 11,342 130 36 12 18 0 2 0
TOTAL 148,386 147,640 668 466 162 254 20 62 102



Figure 43. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type


4.3 Alcohol Test Results by Region

The following section provides alcohol test results for all test types, by each employee category, and for every region.

4.3.1 Alcohol Test Results for Region 1

Table 43 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 1. Figure 44 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 1.

Table 43. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 1

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 3,434 3,418 14 10 2 8 0 2 2
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 680 676 4 4 0 4 0 0 2
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 242 240 2 2 0 0 0 0 2
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 130 128 2 2 0 2 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 28 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 4,514 4,490 22 18 2 14 0 2 6



Figure 44. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 1


4.3.2 Alcohol Test Results for Region 2

Table 44 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 2. Figure 45 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 2.

Table 44. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 2

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 20,832 20,752 76 58 26 18 2 2 8
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 6,770 6,720 44 42 14 20 2 4 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 1,806 1,804 2 2 0 2 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 462 458 4 4 0 4 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 582 580 2 2 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 30,452 30,314 128 108 40 44 4 6 8



Figure 45. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 2


4.3.3 Alcohol Test Results for Region 3

Table 45 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 3. Figure 46 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 3.

Table 45. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 3

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 18,150 18,104 42 42 12 26 0 4 16
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 3,894 3,880 14 14 6 8 0 0 4
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 994 986 2 2 2 0 0 6 4
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 890 888 2 2 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 424 422 2 2 0 2 0 0 0
TOTAL 24,352 24,280 62 62 20 36 0 10 24



Figure 46. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 3


4.3.4 Alcohol Test Results for Region 4

Table 46 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 4. Figure 47 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 4.

Table 46. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 4

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 14,754 14,686 52 42 18 22 6 10 14
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 3,018 2,998 18 16 6 10 0 2 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 904 900 2 0 0 0 2 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 384 384 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 388 386 2 2 2 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 19,448 19,354 74 60 26 32 8 12 14



Figure 47. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 4


4.3.5 Alcohol Test Results for Region 5

Table 47 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 5. Figure 48 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 5.

Table 47. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 5

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 15,110 15,054 50 30 4 26 2 4 26
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 3,092 3,072 16 16 4 12 0 4 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 1,030 1,024 4 4 0 2 0 2 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 268 266 2 2 2 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 124 118 0 0 0 0 0 6 0
TOTAL 19,624 19,534 72 52 10 40 2 16 26



Figure 48. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 5


4.3.6 Alcohol Test Results for Region 6

Table 48 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 6. Figure 49 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 6.

Table 48. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 6

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 9,570 9,536 32 28 8 16 0 2 4
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 2,500 2,488 10 8 2 6 2 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 690 690 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 582 580 2 2 0 2 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 488 486 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
TOTAL 13,830 13,780 44 38 10 24 2 4 4



Figure 49. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 6


4.3.7 Alcohol Test Results for Region 7

Table 49 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 7. Figure 50 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 7.

Table 49. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 7

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 2,888 2,872 16 16 8 6 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 300 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 168 168 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 40 38 2 2 2 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 22 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 3,418 3,400 18 18 10 6 0 0 0



Figure 50. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 7


4.3.8 Alcohol Test Results for Region 8

Table 50 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 8. Figure 51 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 8.

Table 50. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 8

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 2,416 2,414 2 2 0 2 0 0 2
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 562 562 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 166 166 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 96 96 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 22 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 3,262 3,260 2 2 0 2 0 0 2



Figure 51. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 8


4.3.9 Alcohol Test Results for Region 9

Table 51 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 9. Figure 52 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 9.

Table 51. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 9

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 17,994 17,918 70 56 22 34 0 6 8
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 3,234 3,210 24 12 4 8 0 0 6
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 1,132 1,116 14 4 4 0 0 2 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 304 302 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 266 266 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 22,930 22,812 110 72 30 42 0 8 14



Figure 52. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 9


4.3.10 Alcohol Test Results for Region 10

Table 52 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 10. Figure 53 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 10.

Table 52. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 10

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 4,908 4,778 128 30 12 12 0 2 4
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maint. 1,116 1,112 4 2 2 0 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 404 398 4 4 2 2 0 2 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 126 126 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 6,554 6,414 136 36 16 14 0 4 4



Figure 53. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 10


4.3.11 Alcohol Test Results for All Test Types by Region

Table 53 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories and test types for all of the regions. Figure 54 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories and test types for each region.

Table 53. Alcohol Results for All Employee Categories and Test Types by Region
Region Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
1 4,514 4,490 22 18 2 14 0 2 6
2 30,453 30,314 128 108 40 44 4 6 8
3 24,352 24,280 62 62 20 36 0 10 24
4 19,448 19,354 74 60 26 32 8 12 14
5 19,624 19,534 72 52 10 40 2 16 26
6 13,830 13,780 44 38 10 24 2 4 4
7 3,418 3,400 18 18 10 6 0 0 0
8 3,262 3,260 2 2 0 2 0 0 2
9 22,930 22,812 110 72 30 42 0 8 14
10 4,514 4,490 22 18 2 14 0 2 6
TOTAL 146,345 145,714 554 448 150 254 16 60 104



Figure 54. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories and Test Types by Region


4.4 Transit Employer and Contractor Alcohol Test Results

4.4.1 Alcohol Test Results for Transit Employees for All Test Types by Region

Table 54 provides alcohol test results for transit employers for all test types by region. Figure 55 illustrates the percent positive for transit employers for all test types by region.

Table 54. Alcohol Results for Transit Employers for All Test Types by Region
Region Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
1 3,534 3,514 18 14 2 12 0 2 6
2 23,454 23,342 106 102 40 38 4 2 8
3 18,902 18,856 42 42 12 26 0 4 24
4 16,500 16,426 62 50 18 30 4 8 6
5 15,214 15,160 42 38 8 30 2 10 26
6 12,216 12,170 42 38 10 24 2 2 4
7 3,070 3,052 18 18 10 6 0 0 0
8 2,180 2,178 2 2 0 2 0 0 2
9 16,836 16,762 68 54 26 28 0 6 4
10 5,548 5,424 124 26 12 8 0 0 4
TOTAL 117,454 116,884 524 384 138 204 12 34 84



Figure 55. Percent Positive for Transit Employers for All Test Types by Region


4.4.2 Alcohol Test Results for Contractors for All Test Types by Region

Table 55 provides alcohol test results for contractors for all test types by region. Figure 56 illustrates the percent positive for contractors for all test types by region.

Table 55. Alcohol Results for Contractors for All Test Types by Region
Region Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
1 980 976 4 4 0 2 0 0 0
2 6,998 6,972 22 6 0 6 0 4 0
3 5,450 5,424 20 20 8 10 0 6 0
4 2,948 2,928 12 10 8 2 4 4 8
5 4,410 4,374 30 14 2 10 0 6 0
6 1,614 1,610 2 0 0 0 0 2 0
7 348 348 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 1,082 1,082 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
9 6,094 6,050 42 18 4 14 0 2 10
10 1,006 990 12 10 4 6 0 4 0
TOTAL 30,930 30,754 144 82 26 50 4 28 18



Figure 56. Percent Positive for Contractors for All Test Types by Region


4.5 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Each Region

The following section provides alcohol test results by test type for all employee categories within each region.

4.5.1 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 1

Table 56 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 1. Figure 57 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 1.

Table 56. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 1

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 204 204 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Random 2,974 2,966 8 6 0 6 0 0 4
Post-Accident 910 908 2 2 2 0 0 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 28 14 12 10 0 8 0 2 2
Return-to-Duty 50 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 348 348 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 4,514 4,490 22 18 2 14 0 2 6



Figure 57. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 1


4.5.2 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 2

Table 57 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 2. Figure 58 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 2.

Table 57. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 2

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 3,920 3,916 2 2 0 0 2 0 2
Random 18,518 18,438 78 70 36 20 2 0 6
Post-Accident 4,288 4,280 6 4 0 2 0 2 0
Reas. Suspicion 156 130 22 14 2 12 0 4 0
Return-to-Duty 154 148 6 6 0 4 0 0 0
Follow-Up 3,416 3,402 14 12 2 6 0 0 0
TOTAL 30,452 30,314 128 108 40 44 4 6 8



Figure 58. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 2


4.5.3 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 3

Table 58 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 3. Figure 59 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 3.

Table 58. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 3

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 5,550 5,530 20 20 6 12 0 0 0
Random 13,614 13,598 12 12 6 6 0 4 8
Post-Accident 2,324 2,322 0 0 0 0 0 2 14
Reas. Suspicion 158 134 22 22 4 16 0 2 2
Return-to-Duty 366 362 2 2 2 0 0 2 0
Follow-Up 2,340 2,334 6 6 2 2 0 0 0
TOTAL 24,352 24,280 62 62 20 36 0 10 24



Figure 59. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 3


4.5.4 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 4

Table 59 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 4. Figure 60 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 4.

Table 59. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 4

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 2,860 2,856 2 2 0 2 0 2 0
Random 10,884 10,848 28 22 16 6 4 4 14
Post-Accident 4,806 4,792 10 10 2 8 0 4 0
Reas. Suspicion 164 126 32 24 8 14 4 2 0
Return-to-Duty 212 212 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 522 520 2 2 0 2 0 0 0
TOTAL 19,448 19,354 74 60 26 32 8 12 14



Figure 60. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 4


4.5.5 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 5

Table 60 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 5. Figure 61 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 5.

Table 60. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 5

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 2,318 2,312 0 0 0 0 0 6 0
Random 11,158 11,138 18 14 2 10 0 2 6
Post-Accident 4,660 4,654 4 4 2 2 2 0 20
Reas. Suspicion 262 216 40 26 2 24 0 6 0
Return-to-Duty 228 228 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 998 986 10 8 4 4 0 2 0
TOTAL 19,624 19,534 72 52 10 40 2 16 26



Figure 61. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 5


4.5.6 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 6

Table 61 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 6. Figure 62 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 6.

Table 61. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 6

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 1,760 1,756 4 4 0 2 0 0 0
Random 9,356 9,340 12 12 4 8 2 2 4
Post-Accident 2,264 2,262 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 66 42 22 20 6 12 0 2 0
Return-to-Duty 60 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 324 320 4 2 0 2 0 0 0
TOTAL 13,830 13,780 44 38 10 24 2 4 4



Figure 62. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 6


4.5.7 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 7

Table 62 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 7. Figure 63 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 7.

Table 62. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 7

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 128 126 2 2 0 2 0 0 0
Random 2,080 2,076 4 4 0 2 0 0 0
Post-Accident 860 860 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 62 56 6 6 6 0 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 44 40 4 4 2 2 0 0 0
Follow-Up 244 242 2 2 2 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 3,418 3,400 18 18 10 6 0 0 0



Figure 63. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 7


4.5.8 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 8

Table 63 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 8. Figure 64 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 8.

Table 63. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 8

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 120 120 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Random 2,400 2,400 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Post-Accident 482 482 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 52 50 2 2 0 2 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 34 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 174 174 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 3,262 3,260 2 2 0 2 0 0 2



Figure 64. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 8


4.5.9 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 9

Table 64 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 9. Figure 65 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 9.

Table 64. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 9

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 3,698 3,696 2 2 0 2 0 0 0
Random 11,282 11,238 40 10 4 6 0 4 14
Post-Accident 4,968 4,956 12 8 2 6 0 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 204 150 50 48 22 26 0 4 0
Return-to-Duty 268 266 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 2,510 2,506 4 4 2 2 0 0 0
TOTAL 22,930 22,812 110 72 30 42 0 8 14



Figure 65. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 9


4.5.10 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 10

Table 65 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 10. Figure 66 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 10.

Table 65. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 10

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 232 232 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Random 4,664 4,638 22 12 4 6 0 4 4
Post-Accident 968 968 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reas. Suspicion 60 34 26 24 12 8 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 32 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 598 510 88 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 6,554 6,414 136 36 16 14 0 4 4



Figure 66. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 10


Appendix A. MIS Data Collection Form

 


You may also find this form on the office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance website: http://www.dot.gov/ost/dapc/testingpubs/mis_form.pdf

Appendix B. Contact Information

Please contact the following individuals for additional information regarding the FTA's drug and alcohol testing requirements.

Jerry Powers
Drug and Alcohol Program Manager
400 7th Street, SW, FTA TPM-30
Washington, DC 20590
Gerald.Powers@dot.gov
 
Mike Redington
Program Manager/Transportation Industry Analyst
Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
55 Broadway
Cambridge, MA 02142
redington@volpe.dot.gov
 
Eve Rutyna
Transportation Industry Analyst
Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
55 Broadway
Cambridge, MA 02142
rutynae@volpe.dot.gov

For assistance on accessing the FTA Office of Safety and Security Web site and using the Internet reporting system, contact the FTA DAMIS Project Office at (617) 494-6336 or via e-mail at FTA.damis@volpe.dot.gov. The FTA Safety and Security Clearinghouse can be reached at (617) 494-2116 for additional copies of this report as well as technical assistance materials, including the Implementation Guidelines for Drug and Alcohol Regulations in Mass Transit and Best Practices Manual: FTA Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. Documents can also be obtained from the FTA Safety and Security Clearinghouse Web site at: http://transit-safety.volpe.dot.gov/publications/order/default.asp. You may also send e-mail directly to FTA.clearinghouse@volpe.dot.gov.

Appendix C. Glossary of Terms

Amphetamines: Includes racemic, amphetamine, extroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. They are potent stimulants that can be swallowed, snorted, or injected. They reduce the desire to sleep or eat and can induce a sense of aroused euphoria, accompanied by feelings of increased power, strength, energy, self-assertion, focus, and motivation. Because the body does not readily break down amphetamines, these feelings, which are often intense and ephemeral, may last several hours. Severe mental depression and fatigue can set in when the euphoric feelings wear off.

Accident: An occurrence associated with the operation of a vehicle, if as a result:

  1. An individual dies;
  2. An individual suffers a bodily injury and immediately receives medical treatment away from the scene of the accident;
  3. With respect to an occurrence in which the mass transit vehicle involved is a bus, electric bus, van, or automobile, one or more vehicles incurs disabling damage as the result of the occurrence and is transported away from the scene by a tow truck or other vehicle; or
  4. With respect to an occurrence in which the mass transit vehicle involved is a rail car, trolley car, trolley bus, or vessel, the mass transit vehicle is removed from revenue service.

Alcohol Concentration: The alcohol in a volume of breath, expressed in terms of grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath as indicated by a breath test.

Armed Security Personnel: Employees who provide security and carry a firearm.

Canceled or Invalid Test: In drug testing, a drug test that has been declared invalid by a Medical Review Officer (MRO). In alcohol testing, a test that is deemed to be invalid. It is neither a positive nor a negative test.

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle: Job category including any transit employee who holds a Commercial Driver's License (CDL), performs a function requiring a CDL, and is not included in any other job category.

Cocaine: An addictive substance that comes from coca leaves or is made synthetically. It appears as a white powder that is snorted, ingested, injected, freebased (smoked), or applied directly to the nasal membrane or gums. Cocaine acts as a stimulant to the central nervous system. It gives the user a feeling of exhilaration. The chemicals in cocaine trick the brain into feeling it has experienced pleasure when in fact it has not.

Confirmation (or Confirmatory) Test: In drug testing, a second analytical procedure to identify the presence of a specific drug or metabolite that is independent of the screening test and uses a different technique and chemical principle from that of the screening test in order to ensure reliability and accuracy. In alcohol testing, a second test following a screening test with a result of 0.02 or greater that provides quantitative data of alcohol concentration.

Consortium: An entity, including a group or association of employers, operators, recipients, subrecipients, or contractors, which provides drug testing services and acts on behalf of the employer.

Contractor: A person or organization that provides a service for a recipient, subrecipient, employer, or operator consistent with a specific understanding or arrangement. The understanding can be a written contract or an informal arrangement that reflects an ongoing relationship between the parties.

Covered Employee: A person, including an applicant, transferee, or volunteer who perform a safety-sensitive function for a recipient, subrecipient, employer, or operator.

Drug Metabolite: The specific substance produced when the human body metabolizes a given prohibited drug as it passes through and is excreted in urine.

Drug Test: The laboratory analysis of a urine specimen collected in accordance with 49 CFR Part 40 and analyzed in a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)-approved laboratory.

Education: Efforts that include the display and distribution of informational materials, a community service hotline telephone number for employee assistance, and the transit entity policy regarding drug use and alcohol misuse in the workplace.

Employee: An individual designated in a Department of Transportation (DOT) agency regulation as subject to drug and/or alcohol testing. "Employee" includes an applicant for employment.

Employer: A recipient or other entity that provides mass transportation services or performs a safety-sensitive function for such recipient or other entity. This term includes subrecipients, operators, and contractors.

Follow-Up Testing: Drug or alcohol test that is required for an employee who is returned to safety-sensitive duty. The employee is subject to at least six unannounced tests for at least 12 months after returning to duty. The exact number and frequency of tests is prescribed by the Substance Abuse Professional (SAP), who may order tests for up to 60 months after return to duty. SAPs often require the employee to submit to both a drug and an alcohol test even if only one of the tests was at issue. Follow-up testing is separate from, and in addition to random testing. Part 655 incorporates follow-up testing under return-to-duty testing (i.e., return to duty/follow-up testing) as one of five required FTA tests. It was previously listed separately as one of six required Federal Transit Administration (FTA) tests.

Marijuana: Derived from the hemp plant and comes in a variety of colors such as green, brown, and a gray mixture of leaves. THC or (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is the primary active chemical in marijuana. It is absorbed quickly into fatty tissues and stored for a long time. The potency and strength of the chemical causes people to use the drug for the mildly tranquilizing, mood and perception-altering effects it produces. The test for marijuana also includes its metabolites.

Opiates: Known as narcotic analgesics, includes heroin, morphine, and codeine. They are derived from a sap taken from a seedpod of the plant, "papaver somniferum" (or poppy plant). General effects include sedation, slowed reflexes, raspy speech, sluggish movements, slowed breathing, cold skin, and vomiting. The synthetic form of opiates, known as a designer drug, is even more deadly and addictive.

Phencyclidine (PCP): Originally developed as an anesthetic; has adverse side effects that limit its medical use to a tranquilizer for large animals. In people, PCP acts as both a depressant and a hallucinogen and sometimes as a stimulant. PCP can cause distorted bodily perceptions and a feeling of disassociation in which the mind feels separated from the body. These effects can be very upsetting to some people, who may panic as a result.

Positive Rate: The sum of the annual number of positive results for random drug tests conducted under 49 CFR Part 655 plus the annual number of refusals to submit to a random drug test, divided by the sum of the annual number of random drug tests conducted, plus the annual number of refusals to submit to a random drug test.

Post-Accident Testing: Tests required following an accident involving a fatality or an accident that meets any of three other criteria if the employee's involvement cannot be completely discounted as a contributing factor: (1) when a person suffers a bodily injury and immediately receives medical attention away from the scene, (2) when any vehicle involved in the accident incurs damage requiring it to be transported away from the scene by a tow truck or other vehicle, or (3) when the mass transit vehicle involved is a rail car, trolley car, trolley bus, or vessel and is removed from revenue service due to the accident.

Pre-Employment Testing: Testing of candidates for a safety-sensitive position (including existing non-safety-sensitive employees as well as applicants for employment) and of employees who have not performed a safety-sensitive function for more than 90 consecutive calendar days, regardless of the reason, and were removed from the employer's random selection pool during that time.

A negative pre-employment test for drugs is required by FTA as a condition for performing safety-sensitive duties under these circumstances. Pre-employment alcohol tests are not required but are permitted under Part 655 providing they are performed in accordance with the testing procedures in Part 40. The alcohol tests are included in the data presented in Chapter 3 because they are conducted per DOT standards and are required by many employers. The Omnibus Testing Act required a negative pre-employment alcohol test, but FTA suspended the requirement on May 10, 1995, as the result of a U.S. Court of Appeals decision. FTA decided to allow but not require pre-employment alcohol testing in Part 655.

Random Testing: Considered by FTA to be the most effective deterrent to drug use and alcohol misuse as well as the most reliable indicator of drug use and alcohol misuse within an employer and in the industry as a whole, provided it is unannounced and unpredictable. Selections for testing must be based on a scientifically valid random-number selection method, to ensure that all safety-sensitive employees have an equal chance of being selected for testing.

Random Testing Rate: The number of drug tests equal to at least 50 percent of the total number of safety-sensitive employees and, of alcohol tests equal to at least 10 percent of the total number of safety-sensitive employees must be conducted each year by this method.

Reasonable Suspicion Testing: Required when an employer has reasonable suspicion that an employee has used a prohibited drug or has misused alcohol as defined in the regulations. Reasonable suspicion testing must be based on specific, contemporaneous, articulable observations made by a trained supervisor concerning the appearance, behavior, speech, or body odor of a safety-sensitive employee.

Recipient: An entity receiving federal financial assistance under Section 5307, 5309, or 5311 of the Federal Transit Act or under sections 103(e)(4) of Title 23 of the U.S. Code.

Refusal to Submit (to an alcohol test): When a covered employee fails to provide adequate breath for testing without a valid medical explanation.

Refusal to Submit (to a drug test): When a covered employee fails to provide a urine sample as required by 49 CFR Part 40 without a valid medical explanation after receiving notice of the requirement to be tested, or engages in conduct that clearly obstructs the testing process.

Return-to-Duty Testing: Drug and/or alcohol test that is required for a safety-sensitive employee who completes a course of treatment prescribed by a SAP after testing positive for drugs or alcohol or refusing to submit to a required test. A negative result for the type (drug or alcohol) of positive or refused test is required before the employee can be returned to duty. SAPs often require the employee to submit to both a drug and an alcohol test even if only one of the tests was at issue.

Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance: Includes employees who maintain revenue service vehicles or equipment, as well as many maintenance contract employees who perform routine, ongoing repair or maintenance for FTA recipients and subrecipients that have employees, including supervisors, who perform or could be called upon to perform any of the FTA safety-sensitive functions. Maintenance contractors of 5311 funding recipients are not subject to the testing regulations. Additionally, recipients that operate in areas with a population of 200,000 or less and contract out maintenance services are no longer required to comply.

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch: Includes employees who control the movement of revenue service vehicles. The key consideration is the type of work performed rather than a particular job title. FTA decided not to attempt a universal definition of "dispatchers" in Part 655. Instead, each employer determines whether its particular dispatcher performs or may perform a safety-sensitive function.

Revenue Vehicle Operation: Safety-sensitive job category; includes employees who operate a revenue service vehicle, regardless of whether it is in service.

Safety-Sensitive Function: Any of the following duties:

Screening Test (or Initial Test): In drug testing, an immunoassay screen to eliminate "negative" urine specimens from further analysis. In alcohol testing, an analytical procedure to determine whether an employee may have a prohibited concentration of alcohol in a breath specimen.

Transit System: The public entity that receives the Federal grant (direct grant recipient), whether or not that recipient provides mass transit services directly.

Violation Rate: Refers to the sum of the annual number of results from random alcohol tests conducted under 49 CFR Part 655 that have alcohol concentrations of 0.04 or greater plus the annual number of refusals to submit to alcohol tests, divided by the sum of the annual number of random alcohol tests conducted, plus the annual number of refusals to submit to a drug test.

Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance: Function including any person repairing or maintaining revenue service vehicles or other equipment used in revenue service.

Verified Negative (drug test result): A drug test result reviewed by an MRO and determined to have no evidence of prohibited drug use.

Verified Positive (drug test result): A drug test result reviewed by an MRO and determined to have evidence of prohibited drug use.


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