2007 DAMIS Annual Report

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REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved
OMB No. 0704-0188
Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503.
1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE
May 2009
3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED
Final Report
January 2006-December 2007
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2007 Annual Report
5. FUNDING NUMBERS
VT73A1/FVN08
6. AUTHOR(S)
Mike Redington, Eve Rutyna, Nathan Grace*, and Felicity Shanahan*
7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)
U.S. Department of Transportation
Research and Innovative Technology Administration
John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
55 Broadway
Cambridge, MA 02142-1093
8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER
DOT-VNTSC-FTA-09-01
9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)
U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Transit Administration
Office of Safety and Security
Washington, DC 20590
10. SPONSORING/MONITORING
AGENCY REPORT NUMBER
FTA-MA-26-5562-09-1
11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
*MacroSys Research and Technology
55 Broadway
Cambridge, MA 02142-1093
12a. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT
This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service,
Springfield, VA 22161.
12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE
13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words)
This is the 13th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2007, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol testing program (49 CFR Part 40 and 49 CFR Part 655), the results from the data reported for 2007, and the random drug and alcohol violation rates (the percentage of persons selected for a random test who produced a positive specimen or refused to take the test) for calendar years 1995 through 2007.

This report provides a brief overview of the drug and alcohol testing requirements for both safety-sensitive employers and employees. The official random rates for 2007 are provided, as well as the official random rate trends over the last 13 years. The results of alcohol and drug tests are provided by test type, employee category, and region. The positive testing rates for drugs and alcohol are also provided for each test type, employee category, and region.
14. SUBJECT TERMS
Alcohol testing, drug testing, random testing, safety-sensitive, violation rate
15. NUMBER OF PAGES
94
16. PRICE CODE
17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT
Unclassified
18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE
Unclassified
19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT
Unclassified
20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT
Unlimited
NSN 7540-01-280-5500   Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89)
Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18
298-102

Table of Contents

1. Testing Requirements

2. Random Drug and Alcohol Rates

3. Drug Test Results

4. Alcohol Test Results

Appendix A. MIS Data Collection Form

Appendix B. Contact Information

Appendix C. Glossary of Terms


List of Figures


List of Tables


1. Testing Requirements

1.1 Required Testing Program

Safety-sensitive employees must undergo testing for five illegal substances with the use of six different test types. Employees who perform safety-sensitive functions must also be tested for alcohol use in each of those test types, except for pre-employment testing. Employers are required to conduct four types of tests of employees who perform safety-sensitive functions and are permitted to conduct two other types of tests for drugs and alcohol (return-to-duty and follow-up).

Table 1 lists the employee categories, test types, and drug types that fall under the auspices of the FTA Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. For more detailed descriptions of each of these categories, refer to the glossary in Appendix C. You may also refer to FTA and DOT drug and alcohol regulations on the FTA Office of Safety and Security Web site at: http://transit-safety.volpe.dot.gov/Safety/datesting/regulations/default.asp. For additional guidance, another excellent source is the Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance (ODAPC) Web site: http://www.dot.gov/ost/dapc/index.html.

Table 1. Safety-Sensitive Employee Categories, Test Types, and Drug Types
Safety-Sensitive Employee Categories

Revenue vehicle operation
Revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance
Revenue vehicle control/Dispatch
CDL/Non-revenue vehicle
Armed security personnel
Ferry Boat Operator
Test Types

Pre-Employment
Random
Post-Accident
Reasonable Suspicion
Return-to-Duty
Follow-Up
Drug Types

Marijuana
Cocaine
Phencyclidine (PCP)
Opiates
Amphetamines


1.2 Regions Required to Test

The FTA is comprised of 10 regions, which are identified in Figure 1. The data provided by these regions have facilitated the comparison of drug and alcohol test results and the identification of regional trends. Table 2 lists the states and territories in each FTA region.



Figure 1. The Ten FTA Regions Required to Test for Drugs and Alcohol

Table 2. U.S. States and Territories by Region
Region States
1 Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont
2 New Jersey, New York, U.S. Virgin Islands
3 Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia
4 Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Puerto Rico
5 Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin
6 Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas
7 Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska
8 Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming
9 American Samoa, Arizona, California, Guam, Hawaii, Nevada, Northern Mariana Islands
10 Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

1.3 Covered Employees and Employers

A covered employee is any person, including an applicant, transferee, or volunteer who performs or will perform a safety-sensitive function for an entity subject to 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 655. A covered employer is a recipient or other entity that provides a mass transportation service or performs a safety-sensitive function for such recipient or other entity. This includes Section 5311 State Nonurban subrecipients, Section 5307 Urbanized Area Formula grantees, Section 5309 Major Capital Investment recipients, and contractors. Table 3 provides a list of the number of covered employees and employers in each FTA region.

Table 3. Number of Covered Employees and Employers by Region
Region Number of Covered Employees Number of Covered Employers
1 13,290 205
2 56,033 209
3 30,905 188
4 32,329 589
5 40,654 667
6 19,100 234
7 9,502 338
8 9,146 200
9 46,370 388
10 15,829 200
Total 273,158 3,218


1.4 Percent Positive for Drugs and Alcohol

When testing for drugs, the term "percent positive" refers to the number of verified positive results plus the number of refusal results divided by the number of test results. For alcohol tests, percent positive is the number of confirmation tests with results of 0.04 or greater plus the number of refusal results divided by the number of screening test results.

2. Random Drug and Alcohol Rates

2.1 Official Random Rates for 2006

Figures 2 and 3 show the official rates for random drug and alcohol tests used by the FTA Administrator in determining the random rates for 2007. Figure 2 shows the positive rate for random drug tests over the last 13 years (1995 through 2007). Figure 3 shows the violation rate for random alcohol tests over the same 13-year span.

2.2 Calculating Positive Rates and Violation Rates

The positive rate for drugs is calculated by taking the total number of verified positive tests; adding to that the total number of adulterated samples plus total number of substituted specimens, shy bladder instances (those without medical explanation), and other refusals; and dividing that number by the total number of drug test results. The violation rate for alcohol is calculated by taking the total number of confirmative test results greater than or equal to a breath alcohol level of 0.04, adding the total number of shy lung instances (those without medical explanation) plus the total number of other refusals, and dividing that number by the total number of screens conducted.


Figure 2. Positive Rate for Random Drug Tests (1995-2007)



Figure 3. Violation Rate for Random Alcohol Tests (1995-2007)


2.3 Official Positive Rate and Violation Rate Trends

As shown in Figure 4, the official positive rate (drugs) increased to 0.81 percent. While the rate has increased slightly from 2006, it is still lower than the random positive rate recorded in 1995. The violation rate (alcohol) also increased slightly to 0.15 percent in 2007.


Figure 4. Official Positive Rates and Violation Rates (1995-2007)


3. Drug Test Results

3.1 Drug Test Results by Test Type

This section provides drug test results by test type conducted and for each employee category.

3.1.1 Pre-Employment Drug Test Results

Table 4 provides results of pre-employment drug tests for all employee categories. Figure 5 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all pre-employment drug tests.

Table 4. Pre-Employment Drug Test Results by Employee Categories
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 79,328 77,255 1,912 1,340 471 45 37 69 25 9 12 115 224
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 10,025 9,764 243 185 41 4 6 12 4 1 2 11 13
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 3,282 3,226 50 32 11 0 2 7 0 0 2 4 11
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 879 861 17 11 3 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 1,139 1,131 6 2 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2
TOTAL 94,653 92,237 2,228 1,570 530 49 46 90 30 11 16 131 250



Figure 5. Percent Positive for Pre-Employment Drug Tests by Employee Category


3.1.2 Random Drug Test Results

Table 5 provides results of random drug tests for all employee categories. Figure 6 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all random drug tests.

Table 5. Random Drug Test Results by Employee Categories
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 68,405 67,832 496 278 185 8 17 25 5 4 10 58 146
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 17,849 17,698 140 87 52 2 2 4 0 0 3 8 23
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 6,991 6,946 41 29 9 2 0 1 0 0 0 4 13
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 1,701 1,689 11 7 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3
Armed Security Personnel 1,551 1,550 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
TOTAL 96,497 95,715 689 402 250 12 19 30 5 4 14 70 187



Figure 6. Percent Positive for Random Drug Tests by Employee Category


3.1.3 Post-Accident Drug Test Results

Table 6 provides results of post-accident drug tests for all employee categories. Figure 7 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all post-accident drug tests.

Table 6. Post-Accident Drug Test Results by Employee Categories
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 12,808 12,633 165 86 67 3 7 10 0 1 0 9 20
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 608 600 8 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 136 134 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 76 74 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Armed Security Personnel 83 83 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 13,711 13,524 176 93 69 4 7 11 0 1 0 10 20



Figure 7. Percent Positive for Post-Accident Drug Tests by Employee Category


3.1.4 Reasonable Suspicion Drug Test Results

Table 7 provides results of reasonable suspicion drug tests for all employee categories. Figure 8 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all reasonable suspicion drug tests.

Table 7. Reasonable Suspicion Drug Test Results by Employee Categories
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 429 371 43 24 14 0 6 2 0 1 0 14 2
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 77 69 4 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 16 13 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Armed Security Personnel 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
TOTAL 530 460 49 26 17 0 6 3 0 1 1 19 4



Figure 8. Percent Positive for Reasonable Suspicion Drug Tests by Employee Category


3.1.5 Return-to-Duty Drug Test Results

Table 8 provides results of return-to-duty drug tests for all employee categories. Figure 9 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all return-to-duty drug tests.

Table 8. Return-to-Duty Drug Test Results for All Employee Categories
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 716 705 11 5 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 165 163 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 37 37 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 925 912 13 6 6 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1



Figure 9. Percent Positive for Return-to-Duty Drug Tests by Employee Category


3.1.6 Follow-Up Drug Test Results

Table 9 provides results of follow-up drug tests for all employee categories. Figure 10 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all follow-up drug tests.

Table 9. Follow-Up Drug Test Results for All Employee Categories
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 4,147 4,084 57 29 25 1 1 1 1 0 0 5 5
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 1,674 1,649 24 15 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 243 240 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 145 141 4 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 23 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 6,232 6,137 88 45 37 1 4 1 1 0 0 6 7



Figure 10. Percent Positive for Follow-Up Drug Tests by Employee Category


3.1.7 Drug Test Results by Test Type for All Employee Categories

Table 10 provides drug test results by test type for all employee categories. Figure 11 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type.

Table 10. Drug Test Results by Test Type for All Employee Categories
Test Type Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 94,653 92,237 2,228 1,570 530 49 46 90 30 11 16 131 250
Random 96,497 95,715 689 402 250 12 19 30 5 4 14 70 187
Post-Accident 13,711 13,524 176 93 69 4 7 11 0 1 0 10 20
Reasonable Suspicion 530 460 49 26 17 0 6 3 0 1 1 19 4
Return-to-Duty 925 912 13 6 6 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1
Follow-Up 6,232 6,137 88 45 37 1 4 1 1 0 0 6 7
TOTAL 212,548 208,985 3,243 2,142 909 67 83 135 36 17 31 236 469



Figure 11. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type


3.2 Drug Test Results by Employee Category

3.2.1 Revenue Vehicle Operation

Table 11 provides drug test results for the revenue vehicle operation employee category. Figure 12 illustrates the percent positive for each test type under the revenue vehicle operation employee category.

Table 11. Drug Test Results for Revenue Vehicle Operation
Test Type Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 79,328 77,255 1,912 1,340 471 45 37 69 25 9 12 115 224
Random 68,405 67,832 496 278 185 8 17 25 5 4 10 58 146
Post-Accident 12,808 12,633 165 86 67 3 7 10 0 1 0 9 20
Reasonable Suspicion 429 371 43 24 14 0 6 2 0 1 0 14 2
Return-to-Duty 716 705 11 5 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Follow-Up 4,147 4,084 57 29 25 1 1 1 1 0 0 5 5
TOTAL 165,833 162,880 2,684 1,762 767 58 69 107 31 15 22 201 398



Figure 12. Percent Positive for Revenue Vehicle Operation by Test Type


3.2.2 Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

Table 12 provides drug test results for the revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance employee category by test type. Figure 13 illustrates the percent positive for the revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance employee category by test type.

Table 12. Drug Test Results for Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance
Test Type Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 10,025 9,764 243 185 41 4 6 12 4 1 2 11 13
Random 17,849 17,698 140 87 52 2 2 4 0 0 3 8 23
Post-Accident 608 600 8 5 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 77 69 4 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0
Return-to-Duty 165 163 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 1,674 1,649 24 15 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
TOTAL 30,398 29,943 421 294 107 7 8 17 4 1 6 23 38



Figure 13. Percent Positive for Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance by Test Type


3.2.3 Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch

Table 13 provides drug test results for the revenue vehicle control/dispatch employee category by test type. Figure 14 illustrates the percent positive for the revenue vehicle control/dispatch employee category by test type.

Table 13. Drug Test Results for Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch
Test Type Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 3,282 3,226 50 32 11 0 2 7 0 0 2 4 11
Random 6,991 6,946 41 29 9 2 0 1 0 0 0 4 13
Post-Accident 136 134 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 16 13 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
Return-to-Duty 37 37 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 243 240 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 10,705 10,596 98 64 23 2 2 9 0 0 2 9 24



Figure 14. Percent Positive for Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch by Test Type


3.2.4 Commercial Driver's License (CDL)/Non-Revenue Vehicle

Table 14 provides drug test results for the commercial driver's license (CDL)/non-revenue vehicle employee category by test type. Figure 15 illustrates the percent positive for the CDL/non-revenue vehicle employee category by test type.

Table 14. Drug Test Results for Commercial Driver's License (CDL)/Non-Revenue Vehicle
Test Type Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 879 861 17 11 3 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0
Random 1,701 1,689 11 7 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3
Post-Accident 76 74 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Reasonable Suspicion 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Return-to-Duty 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 145 141 4 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 2,813 2,777 33 19 8 0 4 2 1 0 1 1 5



Figure 15. Percent Positive for Commercial Driver's License (CDL)/Non-Revenue Vehicle by Test Type


3.2.5 Armed Security Personnel

Table 15 provides drug test results for the armed security personnel employee category by test type. Figure 16 illustrates the percent positive for the armed security personnel employee category by test type.

Table 15. Drug Test Results for Armed Security Personnel
Test Type Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 1,139 1,131 6 2 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2
Random 1,551 1,550 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Post-Accident 83 83 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Return-to-Duty 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 23 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 2,799 2,789 7 3 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 4



Figure 16. Percent Positive for Armed Security Personnel by Test Type


3.2.6 Drug Test Results for All Employee Categories

Table 16 provides drug test results for all test types by employee category. Figure 17 illustrates the percent positive for all test types by employee category.

Table 16. Drug Test Results for All Test Types by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Revenue Vehicle Operation 165,833 162,880 2,684 1,762 767 58 69 107 31 15 22 201 398
Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance 30,398 29,943 421 294 107 7 8 17 4 1 6 23 38
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 10,705 10,596 98 64 23 2 2 9 0 0 2 9 24
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 2,813 2,777 33 19 8 0 4 2 1 0 1 1 5
Armed Security Personnel 2,799 2,789 7 3 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 4
TOTAL 212,548 208,985 3,243 2,142 909 67 83 135 36 17 31 236 469



Figure 17. Percent Positive for All Test Types by Employee Category


3.3 Drug Test Results by Region

3.3.1 Drug Test Results for Region 1

Table 17 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 1. Figure 18 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 1.

Table 17. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 1

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 3,407 3,316 88 65 23 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 3
Random 4,237 4,204 30 16 14 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 22
Post-Accident 490 483 7 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Reasonable Suspicion 18 12 5 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Return-to-Duty 51 50 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 354 348 6 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 8,557 8,413 137 92 45 1 1 2 0 0 0 7 26



Figure 18. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 1


3.3.2 Drug Test Results for Region 2

Table 18 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 2. Figure 19 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 2.

Table 18. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 2

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 16,311 15,917 384 271 105 7 10 2 6 2 0 2 18
Random 17,784 17,675 100 54 43 0 2 1 1 0 0 8 21
Post-Accident 2,433 2,407 24 8 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2
Reasonable Suspicion 62 50 8 1 6 0 1 0 0 2 0 4 1
Return-to-Duty 156 155 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 1,758 1,744 14 9 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
TOTAL 38,504 37,948 531 343 176 7 13 3 7 2 0 16 43



Figure 19. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 2


3.3.3 Drug Test Results for Region 3

Table 19 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 3. Figure 20 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 3

Table 19. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 3

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 11,316 10,836 426 304 95 33 4 3 1 0 4 49 45
Random 11,645 11,528 106 57 37 8 6 1 1 0 0 10 18
Post-Accident 1,187 1,171 16 5 9 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2
Reasonable Suspicion 97 84 11 5 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 2 0
Return-to-Duty 159 159 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 1,114 1,103 11 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 25,518 24,881 570 376 151 42 15 4 2 0 4 61 65



Figure 20. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 3


3.3.4 Drug Test Results for Region 4

Table 20 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 4. Figure 21 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 4.

Table 20. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 4

Test Type
TOTAL Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 11,559 11,285 252 169 81 2 8 1 5 3 3 11 32
Random 13,224 13,117 95 62 33 1 5 2 1 0 3 8 39
Post-Accident 2,060 2,028 28 18 9 1 3 1 0 1 0 3 5
Reasonable Suspicion 59 51 5 2 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 2
Return-to-Duty 134 133 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 333 316 16 8 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
TOTAL 27,369 26,930 397 260 134 4 16 5 6 4 6 26 78



Figure 21. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 4


3.3.5 Drug Test Results for Region 5

Table 21 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 5. Figure 22 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 5.

Table 21. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 5

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 11,834 11,558 254 187 64 0 5 2 9 3 2 8 19
Random 13,962 13,839 107 59 46 1 2 1 0 1 7 8 24
Post-Accident 2,532 2,488 43 21 18 1 3 0 0 0 0 1 1
Reasonable Suspicion 123 114 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 5 0
Return-to-Duty 143 139 4 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 850 840 9 4 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 1
TOTAL 29,444 28,978 419 274 135 2 12 3 9 5 10 23 45



Figure 22. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 5


3.3.6 Drug Test Results for Region 6

Table 22 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 6. Figure 23 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 6.

Table 22. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 6

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 7,549 7,364 159 105 49 1 0 6 2 0 3 21 20
Random 7,296 7,227 55 27 25 2 0 2 0 0 0 14 13
Post-Accident 1,034 1,019 13 8 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 1
Reasonable Suspicion 23 21 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1
Return-to-Duty 24 21 3 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 137 132 5 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 16,063 15,784 237 143 80 6 0 11 2 0 3 37 35



Figure 23. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 6


3.3.7 Drug Test Results for Region 7

Table 23 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 7. Figure 24 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 7.

Table 23. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 7

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 3,221 3,170 48 37 5 0 2 4 0 0 0 3 8
Random 3,491 3,464 22 17 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 11
Post-Accident 435 433 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 17 14 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Return-to-Duty 35 34 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 71 68 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 7,270 7,183 78 61 12 0 2 4 0 0 0 9 19



Figure 24. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 7


3.3.8 Drug Test Results for Region 8

Table 24 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 8. Figure 25 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 8.

Table 24. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 8

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 4,593 4,496 94 62 27 0 3 5 1 0 0 2 13
Random 3,378 3,342 31 21 8 0 1 3 1 1 0 3 10
Post-Accident 317 313 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Reasonable Suspicion 21 19 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Return-to-Duty 40 39 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Follow-up 92 91 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
TOTAL 8,441 8,300 131 87 37 0 4 8 2 1 0 7 26



Figure 25. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 8


3.3.9 Drug Test Results for Region 9

Table 25 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 9. Figure 26 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 9.

Table 25. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 9

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 20,869 20,350 481 346 74 5 13 55 6 3 4 25 91
Random 16,838 16,707 117 69 33 0 2 17 1 1 2 10 25
Post-Accident 2,625 2,588 36 22 9 0 0 9 0 0 0 1 6
Reasonable Suspicion 87 76 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Return-to-Duty 157 156 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 1,285 1,261 20 11 7 0 2 0 1 0 0 3 4
TOTAL 41,861 41,138 664 457 123 5 18 81 8 4 6 41 126



Figure 26. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 9


3.3.10 Drug Test Results for Region 10

Table 26 provides drug test results by test type and drugs detected for Region 10. Figure 27 illustrates the percent positive for all test types for Region 10.

Table 26. Drug Test Results by Test Type and Drugs Detected for Region 10

Test Type
Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
Pre-Employment 3,908 3,860 41 23 7 0 0 11 0 0 0 7 3
Random 4,588 4,558 26 20 5 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 9
Post-Accident 598 594 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Reasonable Suspicion 22 18 4 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 25 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-up 238 234 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
TOTAL 9,379 9,289 78 48 16 0 2 14 0 1 2 9 13



Figure 27. Percent Positive for All Test Types for Region 10


3.3.11 Drug Test Results for All Regions

Table 27 provides drug test results for all test types and drugs detected for each region. Figure 28 illustrates the percent positive for all test types by region.

Table 27. Drug Test Results for All Regions
Region Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
1 8,557 8,413 137 92 45 1 1 2 0 0 0 7 26
2 38,504 37,948 531 343 176 7 13 3 7 2 0 16 43
3 25,518 24,881 570 376 151 42 15 4 2 0 4 61 65
4 27,369 26,930 397 260 134 4 16 5 6 4 6 26 78
5 29,444 28,978 419 274 135 2 12 3 9 5 10 23 45
6 16,063 15,784 237 143 80 6 0 11 2 0 3 37 35
7 7,270 7,183 78 61 12 0 2 4 0 0 0 9 19
8 8,441 8,300 131 87 37 0 4 8 2 1 0 7 26
9 41,861 41,138 664 457 123 5 18 81 8 4 6 41 126
10 9,379 9,289 78 48 16 0 2 14 0 1 2 9 13
Total 212,406 208,844 3,242 2,141 909 67 83 135 36 17 31 236 476



Figure 28. Percent Positive for All Test Types by Region


3.3.12 Drug Test Results for Transit Employers and Contractors

Table 28 provides drug test results for transit employers by region. Figure 29 illustrates the percent positive for transit employers by region. Table 29 provides drug test results for contractors by region. Figure 30 illustrates the percent positive for contractors by region.

Table 28. Drug Test Results for Transit Employers by Region
Region Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
1 5,987 5,905 76 47 28 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 23
2 25,078 24,821 248 164 80 3 4 1 0 0 0 9 19
3 16,021 15,806 189 113 55 12 9 1 1 0 4 21 24
4 18,454 18,247 189 125 63 1 6 4 2 1 3 12 51
5 19,675 19,487 164 101 62 0 4 1 3 2 10 9 27
6 12,300 12,124 152 92 49 4 0 9 2 0 2 20 29
7 6,087 6,024 56 42 9 0 1 4 0 0 0 7 10
8 4,762 4,698 58 43 14 0 3 1 1 0 0 5 18
9 18,701 18,537 146 97 25 0 6 19 1 0 5 12 26
10 6,550 6,493 49 29 8 0 0 13 0 0 2 6 9
Total 133,615 132,142 1,327 853 393 21 34 53 10 3 26 107 236



Figure 29. Percent Positive for Transit Employers by Region


Table 29. Drug Test Results for Contractors by Region
Region Total Number of Test Results Verified Negative Results Verified Positive Results for One or More Drugs Positive for Marijuana Positive for Cocaine Positive for PCP Positive for Opiates Positive for Amphetamines Refusals Cancelled Tests
Adulterated Substituted "Shy Bladder" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing
1 2,570 2,508 61 45 17 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 3
2 13,426 13,127 283 179 96 4 9 2 7 2 0 7 24
3 9,497 9,075 381 263 96 30 6 3 1 0 0 40 41
4 8,915 8,683 208 135 71 3 10 1 4 3 3 14 27
5 9,769 9,491 255 173 73 2 8 2 6 3 0 14 18
6 3,763 3,660 85 51 31 2 0 2 0 0 1 17 6
7 1,183 1,159 22 19 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 2
8 3,679 3,602 73 44 23 0 1 7 1 1 0 2 8
9 23,160 22,601 518 360 98 5 12 62 7 4 1 29 100
10 2,829 2,796 29 19 8 0 2 1 0 1 0 3 4
Total 78,791 76,702 1,915 1,288 516 46 49 82 26 14 5 129 233



Figure 30. Percent Positive for Contractors by Region


4. Alcohol Test Results

4.1 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type and Employee Category

This section provides alcohol test results by test type conducted and for each employee category.

4.1.1 Pre-Employment Alcohol Test Results

Table 30 provides alcohol results for pre-employment tests for each employee category. Figure 31 illustrates the percent positive for pre-employment tests by employee category.

Table 30. Pre-Employment Alcohol Test Results by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 11,203 11,187 16 16 3 9 0 0 1
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 1,298 1,296 2 2 0 2 0 0 1
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 410 409 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 204 196 8 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 330 329 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 13,445 13,417 28 20 3 12 0 0 2



Figure 31. Percent Positive for Pre-Employment Tests by Employee Category


4.1.2 Random Alcohol Test Results

Table 31 provides alcohol results for random tests for each employee category. Figure 32 illustrates the percent positive for random alcohol tests by employee category.

Table 31. Random Alcohol Test Results by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 26,480 26,411 55 46 17 25 8 6 20
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 7,223 7,192 30 27 10 14 1 0 2
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 2,936 2,929 7 5 1 3 0 0 2
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 682 680 2 1 0 0 0 0 4
Armed Security Personnel 735 735 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ferry Boat Operator 436 435 1 1 0 1 0 0 3
TOTAL 38,492 38,382 95 80 28 43 9 6 31



Figure 32. Percent Positive for Random Tests by Employee Category


4.1.3 Post-Accident Alcohol Test Results

Table 32 provides alcohol results for post-accident tests for each employee category. Figure 33 illustrates the percent positive for post-accident tests by employee category.

Table 32. Post-Accident Alcohol Test Results by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 11,512 11,492 16 16 5 10 1 3 3
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 481 477 4 4 2 2 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 117 117 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 56 55 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 80 80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 12,246 12,221 21 20 7 12 1 3 3



Figure 33. Percent Positive for Post-Accident Tests by Employee Category


4.1.4 Reasonable Suspicion Alcohol Test Results

Table 33 provides alcohol results for reasonable suspicion tests for each employee category. Figure 34 illustrates the percent positive for reasonable suspicion tests by employee category.

Table 33. Reasonable Suspicion Alcohol Test Results by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 399 296 95 94 21 65 1 7 0
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 78 52 26 26 6 20 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 17 15 2 2 0 2 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 6 4 2 1 0 1 0 0 2
Armed Security Personnel 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 503 370 125 123 27 88 1 7 2



Figure 34. Percent Positive for Reasonable Suspicion Tests by Employee Category


4.1.5 Return-to-Duty Alcohol Test Results

Table 34 provides alcohol results for return-to-duty tests for each employee category. Figure 35 illustrates the percent positive for return-to-duty tests by employee category.

Table 34. Return-to-Duty Alcohol Test Results by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 323 322 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 100 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 29 29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 457 456 1 1 0 1 0 0 0



Figure 35. Percent Positive for Return-to-Duty Tests by Employee Category


4.1.6 Follow-Up Alcohol Test Results

Table 35 provides alcohol results for follow-up tests for each employee category. Figure 36 illustrates the percent positive for follow-up tests by employee category.

Table 35. Follow-Up Alcohol Test Results by Employee Category
Employee Category Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 3,194 3,178 15 15 4 8 0 1 2
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 1,562 1,555 7 7 5 2 0 0 1
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 204 202 2 2 0 1 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 114 114 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 32 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 5,106 5,081 24 24 9 11 0 1 3



Figure 36. Percent Positive for Follow-Up Tests by Employee Category


4.1.7 Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type

Table 36 provides alcohol results for all employee categories by test type. Figure 37 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type.

Table 36. Alcohol Test Results for All Test Types
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 13,445 13,417 28 20 3 12 0 0 2
Random 38,492 38,382 95 80 28 43 9 6 31
Post-Accident 12,246 12,221 21 20 7 12 1 3 3
Reasonable Suspicion 503 370 125 123 27 88 1 7 2
Return-to-Duty 457 456 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Follow-up 5,106 5,081 24 24 9 11 0 1 3
TOTAL 70,249 69,927 294 268 74 167 11 17 41



Figure 37. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type


4.2 Alcohol Results by Employee Category

This section provides alcohol test results for each employee category by type of test conducted.

4.2.1 Revenue Vehicle Operation

Table 37 provides alcohol results for the revenue vehicle operation employee category by test type. Figure 38 illustrates the percent positive for the revenue vehicle operation employee category by test type.

Table 37. Alcohol Results for Revenue Vehicle Operation by Test Type
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 11,203 11,187 16 16 3 9 0 0 1
Random 26,480 26,411 55 46 17 25 8 6 20
Post-Accident 11,512 11,492 16 16 5 10 1 3 3
Reasonable Suspicion 399 296 95 94 21 65 1 7 0
Return-to-Duty 323 322 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Follow-Up 3,194 3,178 15 15 4 8 0 1 2
TOTAL 53,111 52,886 198 188 50 118 10 17 26



Figure 38. Percent Positive for the Revenue Vehicle Operation Employee Category by Test Type


4.2.2 Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance

Table 38 provides alcohol results for the revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance employee category by test type. Figure 39 illustrates the percent positive for the revenue vehicle and equipment maintenance employee category by test type.

Table 38. Alcohol Results for Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance by Test Type
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 1,298 1,296 2 2 0 2 0 0 1
Random 7,223 7,192 30 27 10 14 1 0 2
Post-Accident 481 477 4 4 2 2 0 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 78 52 26 26 6 20 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 100 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 1,562 1,555 7 7 5 2 0 0 1
TOTAL 10,742 10,672 69 66 23 40 1 0 4



Figure 39. Percent Positive for the Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance Employee Category by Test Type


4.2.3 Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch

Table 39 provides alcohol results for the revenue vehicle control/dispatch employee category by test type. Figure 40 illustrates the percent positive for the revenue vehicle control/dispatch employee category by test type.

Table 39. Alcohol Results for Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch by Test Type
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 410 409 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Random 2,936 2,929 7 5 1 3 0 0 2
Post-Accident 117 117 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 17 15 2 2 0 2 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 29 29 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Follow-Up 204 202 2 2 0 1 0 0 0
TOTAL 3,713 3,701 12 10 1 7 0 0 2



Figure 40. Percent Positive for the Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch Employee Category by Test Type


4.2.4 CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle

Table 40 provides alcohol results for the CDL/non-revenue vehicle employee category by test type. Figure 41 illustrates the percent positive for the CDL/non-revenue vehicle employee category by test type.

Table 40. Alcohol Results for CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle by Test Type
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 204 196 8 0 0 0 0 0 0
Random 682 680 2 1 0 0 0 0 4
Post-Accident 56 55 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 6 4 2 1 0 1 0 0 2
Return-to-Duty 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 114 114 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 1,067 1,054 13 2 0 1 0 0 6



Figure 41. Percent Positive for the CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle Employee Category by Test Type


4.2.5 Armed Security Personnel

Table 41 provides alcohol results for the armed security personnel employee category by test type. Figure 42 illustrates the percent positive for the armed security personnel employee category by test type.

Table 41. Alcohol Results for Armed Security Personnel by Test Type
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 330 329 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Random 735 735 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Post-Accident 80 80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 32 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 1,180 1,179 1 1 0 0 0 0 0



Figure 42. Percent Positive for the Armed Security Personnel Employee Category by Test Type


4.2.6 Ferry Boat Operator

On April 22, 2002, FTA published a Notice of Interpretation in the Federal Register that changed the applicability of the FTA Drug and Alcohol Testing Regulations to FTA-funded ferry boat operators. Previously, public transit ferry operators were required to comply with both the FTA and USCG regulations. The interpretation stated that FTA-funded ferry operations that comply with the relevant USCG drug and alcohol testing regulations were to be deemed in concurrent compliance with the FTA drug testing regulations. Since the USCG does not have a random alcohol testing provision that is similar to FTA's, the ferry operators were still required to comply with FTA's random alcohol testing requirements as defined in Section 655.45. On June 5, 2006, FTA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) that proposed to codify this interpretation in the final rule. If a ferry boat operator fails to be in compliance with the USCG testing regulations (46 CFR Part 4 and 16, and 33 CFR Part 95) or the FTA random alcohol testing regulations, the operator will be in non-compliance with 49 CFR Part 655. The employee is also subject to FTA consequences defined in Subpart G of the FTA regulations. The employer is responsible for the administrative and compliance certification requirements defined in Subparts H and I of the FTA regulations. This NPRM became a Final Rule, issued in November of 2006, and became effective January 2, 2007.

Table 42 provides alcohol results for the ferry boat operator employee category for random tests only. In 2007, the rate of ferry boat operators who tested positive for alcohol during a random test was 0.23 percent.

Table 42. Alcohol Results for Ferry Boat Operator for a Random Test
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Random 436 435 1 1 0 1 0 0 3
TOTAL 436 435 1 1 0 1 0 0 3


4.2.7 Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type

Table 43 provides alcohol results for all employee categories by test type. Figure 43 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type.

Table 43. Alcohol Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type
Test Type Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 53,111 52,886 198 188 50 118 10 17 26
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 10,742 10,672 69 66 23 40 1 0 4
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 3,713 3,701 12 10 1 7 0 0 2
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 1,067 1,054 13 2 0 1 0 0 6
Armed Security Personnel 1,180 1,179 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Ferry Boat Operator 436 435 1 1 0 1 0 0 3
TOTAL 70,249 69,927 294 268 74 167 11 17 41



Figure 43. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type


4.3 Alcohol Test Results by Region

The following section provides alcohol test results for all test types, by each employee category, and for every region.

4.3.1 Alcohol Test Results for Region 1

Table 44 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 1. Figure 44 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 1.

Table 44. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 1

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 1,823 1,810 13 13 2 10 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 329 328 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 125 125 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 8 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 44 44 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ferry Boat Operator 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 2,333 2,319 14 14 2 11 0 0 0



Figure 44. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 1


4.3.2 Alcohol Test Results for Region 2

Table 45 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 2. Figure 45 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 2.

Table 45. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 2

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 9,655 9,628 24 24 6 15 3 0 1
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 2,943 2,928 15 15 8 6 0 0 1
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 748 743 5 5 0 5 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 102 102 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 278 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ferry Boat Operator 425 424 1 1 0 1 0 0 3
TOTAL 14,151 14,103 45 45 14 27 3 0 5



Figure 45. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 2


4.3.3 Alcohol Test Results for Region 3

Table 46 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 3. Figure 46 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 3.

Table 46. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 3

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 9,272 9,240 29 28 4 21 1 2 2
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 1,976 1,960 16 16 6 9 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 367 367 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 266 265 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 399 399 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ferry Boat Operator 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 12,280 12,231 46 45 10 30 1 2 2



Figure 46. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 3


4.3.4 Alcohol Test Results for Region 4

Table 47 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 4. Figure 47 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 4.

Table 47. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 4

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 6,150 6,137 8 8 1 5 1 4 2
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 1,184 1,179 5 5 0 4 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 711 707 4 3 1 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 218 207 11 1 0 1 0 0 2
Armed Security Personnel 159 159 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ferry Boat Operator 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 8,423 8,390 28 17 2 10 1 4 4



Figure 47. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 4


4.3.5 Alcohol Test Results for Region 5

Table 48 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 5. Figure 48 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 5.

Table 48. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 5

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 8,073 8,030 38 38 11 24 1 4 7
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 1,345 1,336 8 8 3 5 1 0 1
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 546 544 2 2 0 2 0 0 1
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 123 123 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Armed Security Personnel 21 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ferry Boat Operator 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 10,108 10,054 48 48 14 31 2 4 13



Figure 48. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 5


4.3.6 Alcohol Test Results for Region 6

Table 49 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 6. Figure 49 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 6.

Table 49. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 6

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 3,501 3,481 19 19 7 11 0 1 3
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 644 641 3 3 1 2 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 296 296 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 93 93 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 117 117 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ferry Boat Operator 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 4,651 4,628 22 22 8 13 0 1 3



Figure 49. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 6


4.3.7 Alcohol Test Results for Region 7

Table 50 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 7. Figure 50 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 7.

Table 50. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 7

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 1,601 1,590 9 9 3 5 1 1 2
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 190 190 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 71 71 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ferry Boat Operator 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 1,882 1,871 9 9 3 5 1 1 2



Figure 50. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 7


4.3.8 Alcohol Test Results for Region 8

Table 51 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 8. Figure 51 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 8.

Table 51. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 8

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 1,170 1,148 20 11 3 5 0 2 0
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 177 173 4 1 0 1 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 120 119 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 28 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 15 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ferry Boat Operator 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 1,510 1,483 25 12 3 6 0 2 0



Figure 51. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 8


4.3.9 Alcohol Test Results for Region 9

Table 52 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 9. Figure 52 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 9.

Table 52. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 9

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 9,647 9,611 31 31 10 18 2 3 6
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 1,660 1,644 16 16 5 11 0 0 2
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 570 570 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 141 140 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 143 142 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Ferry Boat Operator 6 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 12,167 12,113 49 48 15 29 2 3 8



Figure 52. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 9


4.3.10 Alcohol Test Results for Region 10

Table 53 provides alcohol test results by employee category for all test types within Region 10. Figure 53 illustrates the percent positive by employee category for all test types within Region 10.

Table 53. Alcohol Results by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 10

Employee Category
Total Number of Screen Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Revenue Vehicle Operation 2,202 2,195 6 6 3 3 1 0 3
Revenue Vehicle & Equipment Maintenance 294 293 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch 158 158 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle 72 72 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Armed Security Personnel 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ferry Boat Operator 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 2,726 2,718 7 7 3 4 1 0 4



Figure 53. Percent Positive by Employee Category for All Test Types within Region 10


4.3.11 Alcohol Test Results for All Test Types by Region

Table 54 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories and test types for all of the regions. Figure 54 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories and test types for each region.

Table 54. Alcohol Results for All Employee Categories and Test Types by Region
Region Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
1 2,333 2,319 14 14 2 11 0 0 0
2 14,151 14,103 45 45 14 27 3 0 5
3 12,280 12,231 46 45 10 30 1 2 2
4 8,423 8,390 28 17 2 10 1 4 4
5 10,108 10,054 48 48 14 31 2 4 13
6 4,651 4,628 22 22 8 13 0 1 3
7 1,882 1,871 9 9 3 5 1 1 2
8 1,510 1,483 25 12 3 6 0 2 0
9 12,167 12,113 49 48 15 29 2 3 8
10 2,726 2,718 7 7 3 4 1 0 4
TOTAL 70,231 69,910 293 267 74 166 11 17 41



Figure 54. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories and Test Types by Region


4.4 Transit Employer and Contractor Alcohol Test Results

4.4.1 Alcohol Test Results for Transit Employees for All Test Types by Region

Table 54 provides alcohol test results for transit employers for all test types by region. Figure 55 illustrates the percent positive for transit employers for all test types by region.

Table 55. Alcohol Results for Transit Employers for All Test Types by Region
Region Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
1 1,757 1,747 10 10 0 10 0 0 0
2 10,584 10,554 29 29 11 15 1 0 4
3 9,338 9,303 34 33 6 23 1 0 2
4 6,795 6,769 23 12 1 8 0 3 4
5 6,886 6,844 39 39 13 24 2 1 12
6 3,912 3,891 20 20 6 13 0 1 1
7 1,578 1,568 8 8 3 5 1 1 2
8 1,078 1,058 18 5 1 4 0 2 0
9 8,278 8,258 18 18 6 12 0 2 4
10 2,223 2,218 5 5 3 2 0 0 2
TOTAL 52,429 52,210 204 179 50 116 5 10 31



Figure 55. Percent Positive for Transit Employers for All Test Types by Region


4.4.2 Alcohol Test Results for Contractors for All Test Types by Region

Table 56 provides alcohol test results for contractors for all test types by region. Figure 56 illustrates the percent positive for contractors for all test types by region.

Table 56. Alcohol Results for Contractors for All Test Types by Region
Region Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
1 576 572 4 4 2 1 0 0 0
2 3,567 3,549 16 16 3 12 2 0 1
3 2,942 2,928 12 12 4 7 0 2 0
4 1,628 1,621 5 5 1 2 1 1 0
5 3,222 3,210 9 9 1 7 0 3 1
6 739 737 2 2 2 0 0 0 2
7 304 303 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
8 432 425 7 7 2 2 0 0 0
9 3,889 3,855 31 30 9 17 2 1 4
10 503 500 2 2 0 2 1 0 2
TOTAL 17,802 17,700 89 88 24 50 6 7 10



Figure 56. Percent Positive for Contractors for All Test Types by Region


4.5 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Each Region

This section provides alcohol test results by test type for all employee categories within each region.

4.5.1 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 1

Table 57 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 1. Figure 57 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 1.

Table 57. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 1

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 122 121 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Random 1,430 1,428 2 2 1 1 0 0 0
Post-Accident 454 454 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 18 7 11 11 1 9 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 23 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 286 286 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 2,333 2,319 14 14 2 11 0 0 0



Figure 57. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 1


4.5.2 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 2

Table 58 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 2. Figure 58 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 2.

Table 58. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 2

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 1,741 1,740 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Random 8,325 8,304 19 19 7 11 2 0 5
Post-Accident 2,314 2,309 4 4 0 3 1 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 52 38 14 14 4 9 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 56 56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 1,663 1,656 7 7 3 3 0 0 0
TOTAL 14,151 14,103 45 45 14 27 3 0 5



Figure 58. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 2


4.5.3 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 3

Table 59 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 3. Figure 59 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 3.

Table 59. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 3

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 4,019 4,012 7 7 0 6 0 0 0
Random 5,939 5,925 13 12 2 7 0 1 2
Post-Accident 1,077 1,075 2 2 0 2 0 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 97 77 18 18 5 12 1 1 0
Return-to-Duty 116 116 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 1,032 1,026 6 6 3 3 0 0 0
TOTAL 12,280 12,231 46 45 10 30 1 2 2



Figure 59. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 3


4.5.4 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 4

Table 60 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 4. Figure 60 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 4.

Table 60. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 4

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 1,620 1,610 10 2 0 1 0 0 0
Random 4,798 4,791 6 4 1 1 1 0 1
Post-Accident 1,694 1,691 2 1 0 1 0 1 1
Reasonable Suspicion 48 38 7 7 1 6 0 3 2
Return-to-Duty 48 48 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 215 212 3 3 0 1 0 0 0
TOTAL 8,423 8,390 28 17 2 10 1 4 4



Figure 60. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 4


4.5.5 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 5

Table 61 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 5. Figure 61 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 5.

Table 61. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 5

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 2,020 2,017 3 3 0 2 0 0 0
Random 5,125 5,107 14 14 5 9 2 2 13
Post-Accident 2,283 2,276 6 6 4 2 0 1 0
Reasonable Suspicion 114 95 18 18 4 13 0 1 0
Return-to-Duty 86 85 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Follow-Up 480 474 6 6 1 4 0 0 0
TOTAL 10,108 10,054 48 48 14 31 2 4 13



Figure 61. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 5


4.5.6 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 6

Table 62 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 6. Figure 62 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 6.

Table 62. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 6

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 892 891 1 1 1 0 0 0 1
Random 2,714 2,709 5 5 1 3 0 0 2
Post-Accident 899 896 2 2 1 1 0 1 0
Reasonable Suspicion 32 20 12 12 3 9 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 14 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 100 98 2 2 2 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 4,651 4,628 22 22 8 13 0 1 3



Figure 62. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 6


4.5.7 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 7

Table 63 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 7. Figure 63 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 7.

Table 63. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 7

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 166 165 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Random 1,250 1,244 4 4 3 1 1 1 2
Post-Accident 387 387 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 13 9 4 4 0 4 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 24 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 42 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 1,882 1,871 9 9 3 5 1 1 2



Figure 63. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 7


4.5.8 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 8

Table 64 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 8. Figure 64 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 8.

Table 64. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 8

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 88 88 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Random 1,101 1,083 17 4 0 2 0 1 0
Post-Accident 235 235 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 21 12 8 8 3 4 0 1 0
Return-to-Duty 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 61 61 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 1,510 1,483 25 12 3 6 0 2 0



Figure 64. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 8


4.5.9 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 9

Table 65 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 9. Figure 65 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 9.

Table 65. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 9

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 2,524 2,520 4 4 2 1 0 0 1
Random 5,956 5,940 13 14 6 8 2 1 4
Post-Accident 2,376 2,371 5 5 2 3 0 0 0
Reasonable Suspicion 86 58 27 25 5 17 0 1 0
Return-to-Duty 80 80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 1,145 1,144 0 0 0 0 0 1 3
TOTAL 12,167 12,113 49 48 15 29 2 3 8



Figure 65. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 9


4.5.10 Alcohol Test Results by Test Type for Region 10

Table 66 provides alcohol test results for all employee categories by test type within Region 10. Figure 66 illustrates the percent positive for all employee categories by test type within Region 10.

Table 66. Alcohol Test Results for All Employee Categories by Test Type for Region 10

Test Type
Total Number of Screening Test Results Screening Tests with Results Below 0.02 Screening Tests with Results 0.02 or Greater Number of Confirmation Test Results Confirmation Tests with Results 0.02 to 0.039 Confirmation Tests with Results 0.04 or Greater "Shy Lung" with No Medical Explanation Other Refusals to Submit to Testing Cancelled Tests
Pre-Employment 253 253 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Random 1,838 1,835 2 2 2 0 1 0 2
Post-Accident 527 527 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Reasonable Suspicion 20 15 5 5 1 4 0 0 0
Return-to-Duty 6 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Follow-Up 82 82 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 2,726 2,718 7 7 3 4 1 0 4



Figure 66. Percent Positive for All Employee Categories by Test Type within Region 10


Appendix A. MIS Data Collection Form


Appendix B. Contact Information

For additional information regarding the FTA's drug and alcohol testing requirements, please contact the following individuals:

Jerry Powers
Drug and Alcohol Program Manager
Office of Safety and Security
Federal Transit Administration
Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
55 Broadway
Cambridge, MA 02142
Gerald.Powers@dot.gov
 
Mike Redington
Program Manager/Transportation Industry Analyst
Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
55 Broadway
Cambridge, MA 02142
Michael.Redington@dot.gov
 
Eve Rutyna
Transportation Industry Analyst
Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
55 Broadway
Cambridge, MA 02142
Eve.Rutyna@dot.govv

For assistance on accessing the FTA Office of Safety and Security Web site and using the Internet reporting system, contact the FTA DAMIS Project Office at (617) 494-6336 or via e-mail at FTA.damis@volpe.dot.gov. The FTA Safety and Security Clearinghouse can be reached at (617) 494-2116 for additional copies of this report as well as technical assistance materials, including the Implementation Guidelines for Drug and Alcohol Regulations in Mass Transit and Best Practices Manual: FTA Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. Documents can also be obtained from the FTA Safety and Security Clearinghouse Web site at: http://transit-safety.volpe.dot.gov/publications/order/default.asp. You may also send e-mail directly to FTA.clearinghouse@volpe.dot.gov.

Appendix C. Glossary of Terms

Accident: An occurrence associated with the operation of a vehicle, if as a result:

  1. An individual dies;
  2. An individual suffers a bodily injury and immediately receives medical treatment away from the scene of the accident;
  3. With respect to an occurrence in which the mass transit vehicle involved is a bus, electric bus, van, or automobile, one or more vehicles incurs disabling damage as the result of the occurrence and is transported away from the scene by a tow truck or other vehicle; or
  4. With respect to an occurrence in which the mass transit vehicle involved is a rail car, trolley car, trolley bus, or vessel, the mass transit vehicle is removed from revenue service.

Alcohol Concentration: The alcohol in a volume of breath, expressed in terms of grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath as indicated by a breath test.

Amphetamines: Includes racemic, amphetamine, extroamphetamine, and methamphetamine. They are potent stimulants that can be swallowed, snorted, or injected. They reduce the desire to sleep or eat and can induce a sense of aroused euphoria, accompanied by feelings of increased power, strength, energy, self-assertion, focus, and motivation. Because the body does not readily break down amphetamines, these feelings, which are often intense and ephemeral, may last several hours. Severe mental depression and fatigue can set in when the euphoric feelings wear off.

Armed Security Personnel: Employees who provide security and carry a firearm.

Canceled or Invalid Test: In drug testing, a drug test that has been declared invalid by a Medical Review Officer (MRO). In alcohol testing, a test that is deemed to be invalid. It is neither a positive nor a negative test.

CDL/Non-Revenue Vehicle: Job category including any transit employee who holds a Commercial Driver's License (CDL), performs a function requiring a CDL, and is not included in any other job category.

Cocaine: An addictive substance that comes from coca leaves or is made synthetically. It appears as a white powder that is snorted, ingested, injected, freebased (smoked), or applied directly to the nasal membrane or gums. Cocaine acts as a stimulant to the central nervous system. It gives the user a feeling of exhilaration. The chemicals in cocaine trick the brain into feeling it has experienced pleasure when in fact it has not.

Confirmation (or Confirmatory) Test: In drug testing, a second analytical procedure to identify the presence of a specific drug or metabolite that is independent of the screening test and uses a different technique and chemical principle from that of the screening test in order to ensure reliability and accuracy. In alcohol testing, a second test following a screening test with a result of 0.02 or greater that provides quantitative data of alcohol concentration.

Consortium: An entity, including a group or association of employers, operators, recipients, subrecipients, or contractors, which provides drug testing services and acts on behalf of the employer.

Contractor: A person or organization that provides a service for a recipient, subrecipient, employer, or operator consistent with a specific understanding or arrangement. The understanding can be a written contract or an informal arrangement that reflects an ongoing relationship between the parties.

Covered Employee: A person, including an applicant, transferee, or volunteer who perform a safety-sensitive function for a recipient, subrecipient, employer, or operator.

Drug Metabolite: The specific substance produced when the human body metabolizes a given prohibited drug as it passes through and is excreted in urine.

Drug Test: The laboratory analysis of a urine specimen collected in accordance with 49 CFR Part 40 and analyzed in a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)-approved laboratory.

Education: Efforts that include the display and distribution of informational materials, a community service hotline telephone number for employee assistance, and the transit entity policy regarding drug use and alcohol misuse in the workplace.

Employee: An individual designated in a Department of Transportation (DOT) agency regulation as subject to drug and/or alcohol testing; includes applicants for employment.

Employer: A recipient or other entity that provides mass transportation services or performs a safety-sensitive function for such recipient or other entity. This term includes subrecipients, operators, and contractors.

Follow-Up Testing: Drug or alcohol test that is required for an employee who is returned to safety-sensitive duty. The employee is subject to at least six unannounced tests for at least 12 months after returning to duty. The exact number and frequency of tests is prescribed by the Substance Abuse Professional (SAP), who may order tests for up to 60 months after return to duty. The SAP often requires the employee to submit to both a drug and an alcohol test even if only one of the tests was at issue. Follow-up testing is separate from and in addition to random testing. Part 655 incorporates follow-up testing under return-to-duty testing (i.e., return to duty/follow-up testing) as one of five required FTA tests. It was previously listed separately as one of six required FTA tests.

Marijuana: Derived from the hemp plant, it comes in a variety of colors such as green, brown, and a gray mixture of leaves. THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is the primary active chemical in marijuana. It is absorbed quickly into fatty tissues and stored for a long time. The potency and strength of the chemical causes people to use the drug for the mildly tranquilizing, mood- and perception-altering effects it produces. The test for marijuana also includes its metabolites.

Opiates: Known as narcotic analgesics, includes heroin, morphine, and codeine. Opiates are derived from a sap taken from a seedpod of the plant, papaver somniferum (or poppy plant). General effects include sedation, slowed reflexes, raspy speech, sluggish movements, slowed breathing, cold skin, and vomiting. The synthetic form of opiates, known as a designer drug, is even more deadly and addictive.

Phencyclidine (PCP): Originally developed as an anesthetic; has adverse side effects that limit its medical use to a tranquilizer for large animals. In people, PCP acts as both a depressant and a hallucinogen and sometimes as a stimulant. PCP can cause distorted bodily perceptions and a feeling of disassociation in which the mind feels separated from the body. These effects can be very upsetting to some people, who may panic as a result.

Positive Rate: The sum of the annual number of verified positive results for random drug tests conducted under 49 CFR Part 655 plus the annual number of refusals to submit to a random drug test, divided by the total number of test results.

Post-Accident Testing: Tests required following an accident involving a fatality or following an accident that meets any of three other criteria if the employee's involvement cannot be completely discounted as a contributing factor: (1) a person suffers a bodily injury and immediately receives medical attention from the scene, (2) when any vehicle involved in the accident incurs damage requiring it to be transported away from the scene by a tow truck or other vehicle, or (3) the mass transit vehicle involved is a rail car, trolley car, trolley bus, or vessel and is removed from revenue service due to the accident.

Pre-Employment Testing: Testing of candidates (including existing non-safety-sensitive employees and applicants for employment) for a safety-sensitive position and of employees who have not performed a safety-sensitive function for more than 90 consecutive calendar days, regardless of the reason, and have been removed from the employer's random selection pool during that time.

A negative pre-employment test for drugs is required by FTA as a condition for performing safety-sensitive duties under these circumstances. Pre-employment alcohol tests are not required but are permitted under Part 655, providing that they are performed in accordance with the testing procedures in Part 40. The alcohol tests are included in the data presented in Chapter 4 of this report because they are conducted per DOT standards and are required by many employers. The Omnibus Testing Act required a negative pre-employment alcohol test, but FTA suspended the requirement on May 10, 1995, as the result of a U.S. Court of Appeals decision. FTA decided to allow but not require pre-employment alcohol testing in Part 655.

Random Testing: Considered by FTA to be the most effective deterrent to drug use and alcohol misuse as well as the most reliable indicator of drug use and alcohol misuse within an employer and in the industry as a whole, provided it is unannounced and unpredictable. Selections for testing must be based on a scientifically valid random-number selection method, to ensure that all safety-sensitive employees have an equal chance of being selected for testing.

Random Testing Rate: The number of drug tests equal to at least 50 percent of the total number of safety-sensitive employees and, of alcohol tests equal to at least 10 percent of the total number of safety-sensitive employees must be conducted each year by this method.

Reasonable Suspicion Testing: Required when an employer has reasonable suspicion that an employee has used a prohibited drug or has misused alcohol as defined in the regulations. Must be based on specific, contemporaneous, articulable observations made by a trained supervisor concerning the appearance, behavior, speech, or body odor of a safety-sensitive employee.

Recipient: An entity receiving federal financial assistance under Section 5307, 5309, or 5311 of the Federal Transit Act or under Sections 103(e)(4) of Title 23 of the U.S. Code.

Refusal to Submit (to an alcohol test): When a covered employee fails to provide adequate breath for testing without a valid medical explanation.

Refusal to Submit (to a drug test): When a covered employee fails to provide a urine sample as required by 49 CFR Part 40 without a valid medical explanation after receiving notice of the requirement to be tested, or engages in conduct that clearly obstructs the testing process.

Return-to-Duty Testing: Drug and/or alcohol test that is required for a safety-sensitive employee who completes a course of treatment prescribed by a SAP after testing positive for drugs or alcohol or refusing to submit to a required test. A negative result for the type (drug or alcohol) of positive or refused test is required before the employee can be returned to duty. SAPs often require the employee to submit to both a drug and an alcohol test even if only one of the tests was at issue.

Revenue Vehicle Control/Dispatch: Includes employees who control the movement of revenue service vehicles. The key consideration is the type of work performed rather than a particular job title. FTA decided not to attempt a universal definition of "dispatchers" in Part 655. Instead, each employer determines whether its particular dispatcher performs or may perform a safety-sensitive function.

Revenue Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance: Includes employees who maintain revenue service vehicles or equipment, as well as many maintenance contract employees who perform routine, ongoing repair or maintenance for FTA recipients and subrecipients that have employees, including supervisors, who perform or could be called upon to perform any of the FTA safety-sensitive functions. Maintenance contractors of 5311 funding recipients are not subject to the testing regulations. Additionally, recipients that operate in areas with a population of 200,000 or less and contract out maintenance services are no longer required to comply.

Revenue Vehicle Operation: Safety-sensitive job category; includes employees who operate a revenue service vehicle, regardless of whether it is in service.

Safety-Sensitive Function: Any of the following duties:

  • Operating a revenue service vehicle, including when not in revenue service;
  • Operating a non-revenue service vehicle, when required to be operated by a holder of a CDL;
  • Controlling dispatch or movement of a revenue service vehicle;
  • Maintaining a revenue service vehicle or equipment used in revenue service, unless the recipient receives Section 5311 funding and contracts out such services
  • Providing security and carrying a firearm.

Screening Test (or Initial Test): In drug testing, an immunoassay screen to eliminate negative urine specimens from further analysis. In alcohol testing, an analytical procedure to determine whether an employee may have a prohibited concentration of alcohol in a breath specimen.

Transit System: The public entity that receives the federal grant (direct grant recipient), whether or not that recipient provides mass transit services directly.

Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance: Function including any person repairing or maintaining revenue service vehicles or other equipment used in revenue service.

Violation Rate: Refers to the sum of the annual number of results from random alcohol tests conducted under 49 CFR Part 655 that have alcohol concentrations of 0.04 or greater plus the annual number of refusals to submit to alcohol tests, divided by the sum of the annual number of random alcohol tests conducted plus the annual number of refusals to submit to a drug test.

Verified Negative (drug test result): A drug test result reviewed by an MRO and determined to have no evidence of prohibited drug use.

Verified Positive (drug test result): A drug test result reviewed by an MRO and determined to have evidence of prohibited drug use.


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